Thursday, December 12, 2013

Christmas Concert - Dec 15th - FREE

Freda Payne, International Recording Artist
Eloise Laws, Award Winning Vocalist
Kevin Toney, Grammy Nominated Pianist & Composer
Lamont Van Hook, Vocalist Extraordinaire
Lynwood UMC Praise Team

Dec 15th 4-6PM

Lynwood UMC, 4207 Carlin Avenue, Lynwood, CA 90260

For information call (310) 638-5163

Friday, December 06, 2013

"Ministering to Problem People in Your Church" - Book Review

There have been a few occasions as Chairman of this or President of that where a member or small group of members attempted to thwart my leadership or undermine my position of authority.  I don’t want to believe that they were motivated by greed or envy or evil.  I’ve thought that they just had a different point of view and used their influence or power or situation to defeat what I was elected or selected to accomplish.  Over time I have slowly learned how to cope with these types of individuals – sincere and well-meaning – but in the end they are overwhelmingly destructive and hostile people.  I believe that if I had been given counsel or advice earlier on, I could have avoid many sleepless nights and hours of soul-searching.  Ministering to Problem People in Your Church” by Marshall Shelley is one of the resources I wish I had found many years ago.  While the title might throw you (I’m not a minister and I don’t regularly go to church), this book speaks to any person in a leadership position who has been given a task or mission to accomplish.  To be a successful leader, you must be able to cope with all types of individuals and maintain your focus on the end game.  Hard to do that when some of the people you MUST work with have decided you’re moving in the wrong direction, or that you’re the wrong person for the job.  Resign? Quit?  Marshall Shelley has some compact advice when attempting to deal with “well-intentioned Dragons”.  Over eleven chapters Shelley discusses different type of dragons (individuals) you might have on a committee or board and how you should begin to adjust your style of leadership to avoid conflict and effect needed change.  There are examples on how to avoid personal attacks or how to deal with new types of communication tools: email, blogs, etc.  While many of the solutions offered by Shelley are based in scripture and reflect his background and training as a minister, his perspective is useful and insightful for any manager or person tasked with a mission or goal.

Ministering to Problem People in Your Church, by Marshall Shelley, Bethany House Publishers, Bloomington, Minnesota, 2013.

Review copy provided free of charge by publisher.

Thursday, December 05, 2013

Free Legal Clinics - San Diego, CA

Thomas Jefferson School of Law will be holding free legal clinics during December and January. Each clinic provides a free legal consultation with a licensed attorney and law student. The clinics provide limited legal assistance for low to moderate income self-represented individuals and will not provide ongoing representation. Please feel free to share information about our clinics with those who may benefit. Appointments are required for each clinic.

Saturday, December 14, 2013 from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm
Employee Rights Self-Help Clinic
(619) 961-4371
Provides legal assistance with employment related issues.

Wednesday, December 18, 2013 and January 15, 2014 from 6:00 pm to 8:00 pm
Veterans Self-Help Clinic
(619) 961-4369
Provides legal assistance to Veterans.

Saturday, January 18, 2013 from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm
Small Claims Clinic
(619) 961-4371
Provides legal assistance to individuals who want to sue or are being sued in Small Claims Court.

Thursday, January 23, 2014 from 5:30 pm to 7:30 pm
Family Law Self-Help Clinic
(619) 961-4371
Provides legal assistance with family law related issues. 

Self-Help Clinical Programs
Thomas Jefferson School of Law
495 11th Avenue
San Diego, CA 92101
(619) 961-4371 

Wednesday, December 04, 2013

"Neighborhood Development - What Can We Actually Do?" Dec 10th @ 6PM - 701 16th St, San Diego

Join Voice of San Diego for the "Neighborhood Development - What Can We Actually Do?" panel discussion on Tuesday, December 10 at the old Snowflake Bakery in East Village.  The event, moderated by VOSD reporter Andy Keatts, will take a hard look at what the city can actually do policy-wise to spur "neighborhood development" and how those actions may impact the array of diverse local stakeholders. Expect nothing less than a night of community-centric wonkery.

Confirmed speakers include:
  • Marcela Escobar-Eck, Principal, Atlantis Group, LLC
  • Bill Fulton, Planning, Neighborhoods & Economic Development  Director for the City of San Diego
  • Georgette Gomez, Environmental Health Coalition Associate Director
  • Kenneth Malbrough, Encanto Community Planning Group Chair
  • Lloyd Russell, noted local architect

The event is free for all current VOSD members; a $10 donation is requested for all non-members via the online ticket registration, though tickets will be available at the door prior to the event.

Moniker Warehouse/Snowflake Bakery Building, 701 16th Street, San Diego, CA 92101

Tuesday, December 10, 2013 from 6:00 PM to 8:00 PM (PST)

Doors will open at 6:00, and the program will begin at 6:30 pm.

Thursday, November 21, 2013

LA Focus group ($100/participant) Dec 4th or 5th

ADLER WEINER RESEARCH Los Angeles is currently conducting a focus group on Education for individuals ages 16-24

ADLER WEINER RESEARCH Los Angeles is currently conducting a focus group on Education for Males and Females ages 16-24. The focus groups last 90 minutes and will pay $100 for your time.
WHEN:                     Wednesday, December 4th  or Thursday, December 5th 

WHERE:                   Los Angeles (Westwood)
Topic:                       Education

If you are interested please complete this online survey and we will contact you if you are a match for the research. This online survey will take just one to two minutes to complete. Completing this survey DOES NOT ensure your participation. If you are selected to participate, you will be contacted by one of our recruiters to complete the screening process and confirm your participation. Click on the link below and answer the questions….

We are also accepting referrals.  If you have friends that might qualify and be interested in participating, please pass along this information.....

Please do not call regarding this project.  Unfortunately, due to the number of people we are contacting, you will not receive a reply or call if you do not qualify or if the project is already full.

Friday, November 08, 2013

The Ladder

by Prince

Once upon a time in the land of Sinaplenty
There lived a king who didn't deserve 2 be
He knew not where he came from
Nor where he was going
He never once said thank U, never please

Now this king he had a subject named Electra
Who loved him with a passion, uncontested
4 him each day she had a smile
But it didn't matter
The king was looking 4 the ladder

Everybody's looking 4 the ladder
Everybody wants salvation of the soul
The steps U take are no easy road
But the reward is great
4 those who want 2 go

A feeling of self-worth (everybody's looking)
will caress U (for the answers)
The size of the whole wide world will decrease (how the story started)
(and how it will end)
The love of God's creation will undress U
And time spent alone my friend, will cease

Everybody's looking 4 the answers
How the story started and how it will end
What's the use in half a story, half a dream
U have 2 climb all of the steps in between (yeah, we ride)

Everybody's looking 4 the ladder
Everybody wants salvation of the soul
The steps U take are no easy road (the steps you take are no easy road)
(it's not that easy)
But the reward is great
4 those who want 2 go (I do)

everybody... everybody's looking (Everybody's looking 4 the answers)
for the answers
everybody wants to know how the story (How the story started)
started and how it will end (started and how it will end)
What's the use in half a story, (What's the use in half a story)
half a dream (half of a dream)
U, U gotta climb, U gotta climb (U have 2 climb all)
all of the steps in between (the steps in between)

Everybody's looking 4 that ladder (Everybody's looking 4 the ladder)
Everybody wants salvation of the soul (Everybody wants salvation of the soul)
The steps U take are no easy road (the steps you take are no easy road)
(that's for sure)
But the reward is great (the reward is great)
4 those who want 2 go, (4 those who want 2 go)
those who want 2 go

everybody... everybody wants (Everybody's looking 4 the answers)
an answer
anyone who know how the story (How the story started)
started, how it will end (started and how it will end)
will it be lonely in the world (What's the use in half a story)
What's the use? (half of a dream)
(have 2 climb all)
(the steps in between)

Kevin Toney - Grammy nominated jazz pianist and composer

Join Kevin Toney this Saturday (Nov 9th) afternoon, free to all jazz lovers. He will be speaking about his new book "The Virtuous Man" and will play a few songs starting at 12:00-1:00PM, 4000 E. Ontario Center Parkway, Ontario, CA 91764.

Visit his official website:

Thursday, November 07, 2013

kCura's core values

Be an excellent communicator.

Communicate clearly, answer questions directly, listen to others, and remove any unnecessary words in writing. › Communication is more effective when people can tell that you believe in what you're doing; make it fun, and don't take yourself too seriously. › You don't have all the answers. Be curious, ask questions, and create a dialogue.
Exceed the expectations of our customers and your colleagues.

Go the extra mile to provide outstanding customer service, and treat fellow employees like customers. › Every task is worth doing well and better than anyone else. › Execution is everything. Be meticulous. › This value applies to everything we do, no matter how small.
Hold yourself and your colleagues accountable.

Be dependable, conscientious, and empathic. Focus on self improvement, and know your own limitations. ›  Question your own intentions: is what you’re doing in the best interest of others (our clients, your colleagues, your family, etc.)? ›  Take ownership of mistakes.
Be humble and stay hungry.

Don't be arrogant. › Success hides mistakes and problems. › Keep growing, changing, and looking for the next challenge.› Put yourself in challenging situations so you and kCura grow.
Enjoy and be great at your job.

Take pride in your work, ask to do more, and have fun.› Do it because you love it, or go find something else to do. › Don't be somebody you're not.
Embrace the talents of your colleagues and our clients.

Practice teamwork and collaboration within your department, across departments, and with clients.
Do more with less.

Be frugal and efficient. Commit to constant process improvement. › Never lose the sense of urgency for making improvements to the way we do things.

Wednesday, November 06, 2013

LA City Jobs Workshop - Sat, Nov 16th

The Los Angeles Association of Black Personnel ( is sponsoring an employment workshop on Saturday, Nov 16th 8AM-3PM, 6028 Crenshaw Blvd., Los Angeles, CA. The LAABP's mission is to make the Afro American community aware of the opportunities that are coming regarding employment with the City of Los Angeles, improve their preparation and improve the test taking, interview skills, and promotional readiness of our existing City of Los Angeles employees. LAABP is one of the cities’ 4 - ethnic employee associations founded during Mayor Tom Bradley’s tenure. LAABP is a 501C3 organization with 500 + members. Membership is open to ALL city employees, non- city employees and we are an ALL volunteer organization.
There is a $15 registration fee which includes breakfast and lunch.

Register before Nov 14th online at
or Contact: David E. Jackson – 3rd V.P. LAABP
Senior Construction Inspector
Materials control Coordinator LAWA  CID

What is "Movember13" ???

Each year during the month of November, Movember is responsible for the sprouting of moustaches on hundreds of thousands of men's faces around the world.  Men grow and women support the moustache (or beard) for 30 days to raise vital funds and awareness for men's health, specifically prostate and testicular cancer initiatives.  To date globally, over 3 million participants have raised $444 million.

In the US, one in six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime making it the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men after skin cancer. In 2013, over 238,000 new cases of the disease will be diagnosed and almost 30,000 men will die of prostate cancer in the US alone.
One of the goals of "Movember13" is to raise awareness about testing. Men should talk to their doctor about prostate cancer testing. There are advantages and disadvantages to PSA testing. Understand the prostate cancer risk factors, discussing testing with a doctor and deteremine if prostate cancer testing is appropriate.

Often it’s the funds raised by a charity that are most remembered, but at Movember the awareness raised through the power of the moustache is equally important. The growth of a new moustache prompts a conversation, which in turn generates awareness and educates people on the health issues men face.  Awareness and education then prompts people to take action and change behavior, which is changing and saving lives today.
What behavior are we looking to change?

 On average, men die five years younger than women. The suicide rate is four times higher for men than women and 24% of men are less likely to go to the doctor compared to women.

 Some of the funds raised are used to run the annual Movember campaign, which inspires literally billions of conversations.  Additionally, some funds are used to create and maintain engaging resources, which educate men on the health risks they face, how to stay healthy and how to take action if they become ill.   The Movember website is the ultimate hub for all of this information. Movember also hosts and attends events throughout the year where we deliver health related information in a fun and engaging way.
Is it working?

Absolutely, but there is always more work to be done!  Please consider donating $1 or $5 to my team, and help Movember gets men to proactively learn more about their health. However, findings also highlighted that some men had ignored a health issue rather than go to a doctor. Proof that there is still more work to be done to change the face of men’s health.
Movember continues to educate men and raise awareness around the men’s health issues. To ensure that men continue changing their actions and behaviors towards their health, Movember will continue to invest, develop and grow our Awareness and Education program.

Please consider donating $1 or $5 to my team:

Thank you for your support!

Tuesday, November 05, 2013

On Hawaii Time

Road-tripping on the Big Island offers an entirely new view of L.A.'s favorite archipelago

by Matt Jaffe

The final approach to the Big Island is more lunar landing than touchdown in the tropics. Instead of flying in low over swaying coconut palms, you glide above lava flows-jagged, black, and barren-that stretch to the coast. Stepping out of the plane, you catch the first blast of hot, humid air and descend a staircase (no jetways here) to the tarmac, bound for outdoor baggage claim at America's only tiki-style international airport.
Closer to New Zealand than New York, the Big Island is where America ends and Polynesia begins. More than simply a vacation redoubt for Californians, it is where Hawaii feels most like the separate kingdom it had been until 1893. There are beaches and resorts, of course-among Hawaii's best-but also heiaus, ancient lava-rock temples that predate the period in the early 1800s when local boy Kamehameha the Great united Hawaii under his rule. And what can you say about a place where the Costco has a poke bar with several selections of ahi?

The island is a continent unto itself with ten different climatic zones-from polar to tropical rain forest-and five volcanoes. The world still seems new and unfinished, quite literally, considering that lava from Kilauea Volcano has added 500 acres since 1983. The rest of Hawaii could nearly fit twice within the Big Island's 4,028 square miles, but less than 15 percent of the state's population lives here. So there's room to roam, and roam is what my wife, Becky, and I plan to do on a 300-mile road trip that circles the island.

Driving north from the airport to the Fairmont Orchid on the Kohala Coast, we follow Highway 19 for 20 miles as it travels through lava fields, where tufts of golden grasses play off the blackness. Even though Kohala is the main resort destination for the Big Island, Hawaii's aloha industrial complex is subdued here compared with Waikiki and parts of Maui.
At the Orchid you can stand-up paddleboard and have your mai- tais-at-sunset Hawaii vacation. The resort's Brown's Beach House, with its waterfront setting and locally sourced Hawaiian cuisine, is ideal for that splurge dinner. For more choices Waikoloa Village is ten minutes away. Big Island native Ippy Aiona, parlaying experience working at his mother's Waimea restaurant and appearances on the Food Network, recently opened two spots at Waikoloa: the Three Fat Pigs & the Thirsty Wolf gastropub (go for the pork chop) and Ippy's Hawaiian Barbecue, a take-out counter serving such traditional plate lunches as Kalua pig and lomi-lomi salmon-with the requisite macaroni salad.

Older traditions also endure. You'll find lava-rock ponds along the shore that were built by ancient Hawaiians for raising fish. A short distance past the resort, islanders cast throw-nets into the surf, and farther on a trail leads to more than a thousand petroglyphs-one of the most extensive concentrations in Hawaii.
In the morning we drive 15 minutes to Hapuna Beach for a swim before hiking the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail, an age-old coastal route. During northwest winter swells, Hapuna can go off with a beach break beloved by boogie boarders. Today, however, it's flat as a fishpond, and I float lazily, my view rotating from Maui to the white-domed observatories atop the Big Island's 13,796-foot Mauna Kea.

From Hapuna the trail climbs onto lava bluffs and passes village sites that date to the 13th century, reaching a series of megahomes that, despite their low-slung profiles, better approximate haole heiaus than home sweet homes. Beyond the manicured precincts of Mauna Kea Beach Hotel, the trail enters stands of kiawe, a type of mesquite, where we find the ruins of a stone fireplace with a crest featuring a F incised by a spear point. We're off the tourist track.
Dropping into a hidden cove, we see a bikini-clad woman, who but for decades of steady Hawaiian sun worship could double for Emily Mortimer from The Newsroom. The day before, on a different stretch of trail, we also crossed paths with her. "Just jump in," she told us. "In all of your clothes. It's glorious, just heavenly."

Which is precisely what we do at nearby Mau'umae Beach, a white-sand strand backed by new growth emerging among kiawe that burned in a 2007 wildfire. Here the Big Island is a desert island, arid and hot but with turquoise waters only steps away, where sea turtles glide through the shallows. It is, in fact, both glorious and heavenly.
KAUAI - it's easy to shake the crowds on an island so rich in wilderness

MAHA'ULEPU BEACHTo reach the dreamy site you can walk the four-mile- plus Maha'ulepu Heritage Trail, starting from picturesque Shipwrecks Beach at the Grand Hyatt in Poipu. Or make the 20-minute drive on the dirt road (potholes and all) that begins near Poipu Bay Golf Course. You'll know you're in the right place when halfway down the deserted sands you spot the Gil- lin Beach House, a bungalow still used by the land's owners. Just past Maha'ulepu is Kawailoa Bay, a favorite with kite surfers. Follow the slim path north (watch out for that blowhole!) to Paka- moi Point, where aquamarine waves crash against the cliffs. If you continue on for another 15 minutes to Ha'ula Beach, you can bask in the sensation of being the last creature on earth.
It's no secret that Waimea Canyon is a wonder, a Grand Canyon-meets-Badlands display of geology gone wild. Lots of visitors trek along the Canyon Trail to see Waipoo Falls. What the guidebooks fail to say is that the "view" is of a tiny cascade atop the waterfall. But an unmarked breach in the undergrowth near the lower basins leads to some of the most spectacular views in the kingdom-a canopied walkway that constitutes the second half of the Canyon Trail. After swallowing whole vistas of rock works, you'll eventually zag into the forest, which leads to Kumuwela Road and the YWCA's Camp Sloggett; follow the signs to the Halemanu-Koke'e trail, which ends at Halemanu Valley Road a mile from your car.

GROVE FARMSugarcane, once the smoky giant of Kauai, has gone the way of the kamao: extinct. What most visitors think of as cane is actually guinea grass, a pest, which you'll learn on the Grove Farm tubing expedition offered by Kauai Backcountry Adventures. AOL chairman Steve Case bought the defunct Lihu'e plantation in late 2001 but allows small groups to ride inner tubes along two- and-a-half miles of waterways that once irrigated the crops. During the 30-minute van trip to the launching point, guides dole out facts about the farm's new pursuits (cattle, coffee, corn) and its use as a research station. But lazily floating through five tunnels and a set of rapids is a certain kind of bliss.

Bound for a stay at historic Puakea Ranch in North Kohala, we stop at Hale I'a, aka Da Fish House, to see what fishermen in Kawaihae Harbor have brought in today.
Kanoe Peck, the always-patient owner, smiles when I ask her for a recommendation. "Well, it's all good," Peck says as we look at fillets of opah and ono, ahi, mon- chong, and mahimahi. "They had a good morning out there. But try the mahi. Cook it up with coconut oil to bring out the sweetness." With a pound stashed in a cooler, Becky and I follow the highway as the landscape transitions to a Hawaiian green near Hawi and Kapaau. They're former sugarcane towns now filled with galleries that are popular with travelers destined for black-sand Polulu Beach at the island's northern tip.

In Kapaau you'll see a Kamehameha statue that, not unlike the man himself, has its own epic story. Cast in Paris in 1880, the nine-foot-tall monument spent time on the bottom of the ocean near the Falkland Islands after the ship transporting it sank. Once salvaged, according to one account, the statue did a stint as a cigar store Indian of sorts in front of a Falklands shop, before a Portuguese sea captain brought it to Hawaii with a cargo of cane held-workers.
Off the highway we park at tiny Upolu Airport. From there we hike a rough road along cliffs and through windswept pastures to Ka- mehameha's birthplace and the remains of a 1,500-year-old temple, Mo'okini Heiau, where walls of stacked, lichen-frosted stones enclose a central courtyard. Considering Kamehameha's prominence and Mo'okini's age, there's little explanation (in Kawaihae, Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site offers a fuller look at Kamehameha), just weathered wood signs and a National Historic Register plaque on which someone has scratched out "United States."

Even lacking any explanation, you might feel the haunting sense that something serious went down here. At the heiau (still used for ceremonies), a flat, hollowed-out stone and a standing rock used to strip flesh from bodies mark the site where thousands of human sacrifices occurred following a Tahitian high priest's ascension to power around 1370.
After the return hike, we settle into Cowboy House, one of four bungalows scattered around Puakea Ranch. The building was a bunkhouse for Hawaiian cowboys, known as paniolos, who lived on the property when it was a cattle ranch. Befitting a structure that dates to 1890, the floors creak, and no doubt a sash-and-door guy would kill to update the windows.

But there's a working Wedgewood stove and pictures of paniolos, a long lanai for watching ocean sunsets and a mango tree with a rope swing in front, plus a private wood-and-stone bathhouse with a rain shower out back. We are our own room service, foraging a salad from the ranch's garden to go with the mahi and plucking eggs from the chicken coop for breakfast.

MAUI - the East and West side of the isle are hemispheres apart; which is for you?
Because you expect an island paradise to look like one: green, remote, pulsing with life. The drive along the Hana Highway-52 miles of narrow bridges and curves that snake through mist-shrouded forest and past plunging waterfalls-will give you that by the kilo. Pull off the road at mile marker 9 for an easy three-quarter-mile tropical quest along the Waikamoi Nature Trail. Farther up the highway is Coconut Glen's, a blink-and-you'll-miss-it kind of shack that serves coconut ice cream right in the shell. Pi'ilanihale, an ancient Polynesian place of worship, hides in Kahanu Gardens. At mile marker 32, closer to the tiny town of Hana, you'll find Wai'anapanapa State Park, known for its black-sand beach and sea caves. From there it's a quick jaunt to Travaasa Hana, a historic hotel dating to the '40s that was rebranded two years ago and has sprawling, high-ceilinged cottages to rest in and a slew of activities on tap, from ukulele classes to horseback riding. Up the road Charles Lindbergh's grave shares a bluff with Palapala Ho'omau Church. With the sea below, it's almost as though the site itself is airborne.

WHY WEST IS BESTBecause Maui's western side offers family-friendly convenience along with its powdery beaches and cushy resorts. Wailea is home to several high-end properties, including the all-suite Fairmont Kea Lani, where each of the rooms comes with a lanai. (The hotel's restaurant Ko is worth a stop, with dishes like spicy soba noodles: seafood and chicken paella; and veggie tempu- ra with Moloka'i sweet potato, kabocha pumpkin, and Maui onion.) Between beach bouts tour the island's farms. O'o Farms grows the gamut, from asparagus to coffee to nasturtiums; after a stroll of the grounds, it's time for a stunning luncheon featuring locally caught fish and the farm's finest greens. In the up-country town of Kula, the 13-acre hillside Ali'i Kula Lavender Farm offers tours of its fragrant purple fields as well as a garden overflowing with olive trees, hydrangea, and giant protea. Grab the lavender lemonade and a jar of body scrub on your way out. In the former whaling village of Lahaina, the Maui Brewing Company serves pints of Coconut Porter, which is true to its name.

Tough as it is to drag ourselves out of Puakea's lava-rock pool, we pack up for the east side of the island and take Kohala Mountain Road through rolling ranch lands that resemble Northern California in a wet spring. The road climbs above 3,000 feet, where clouds race through at eye level and rainbows easily form, before it descends into Waimea.
Home to Parker Ranch, which once covered an area larger than Maui, Waimea is Big Island as Big Sky country, a crossroads and agricultural center with touches of sophistication. Located in a onetime schoolhouse, the Isaacs Art Center Museum and Gallery showcases a major collection of Hawaiian art, including Herb Kawainui Kane's monumental painting Cook Entering Kealakekua Bay in 1779, which portrays the rapturous greeting that British explorer and navigator Captain James Cook received on the island.

It's also a good eating town, known for Merriman's, the cottagelike dining destination where chef-owner Peter Merriman pioneered farm-to-table Hawaiian regional cuisine. Along the Mamalahoa Highway, the Fish & the Hog roadhouse serves fresh catch from its own boats, plus barbecued ribs and pulled pork smoked over kiawe wood and basted with a sauce made from li king mui, a Chinese plum.
Waimea ends quickly, and the highway travels through grazing lands before arriving less than 20 minutes later on the Hamakua Coast-where tangled jungles fill deep gulches and veils of rain drift across a vast expanse of ocean. Descending into one of those gulches, we travel beneath dangling vines and over fallen mangoes on the way to Laupahoehoe Point.

Waves pound against a shoreline of lava boulders, some pointed like shark's teeth. Set on a rise and guarded by tiki figures, a marble memorial honors 24 students and teachers from Laupahoehoe's school who were killed in 1946 when a tsunami surged ashore.
Becky and I are examining the offerings along the memorial's base-a plastic lei, puka shells, oxidized pennies-when a tsunami warning siren begins to wail. It's only a monthly test but still eerie enough to send us on our way. Thirty minutes later we're in Hilo, where the Pacific Tsunami Museum commemorates the 1946 disaster as well as one in 1960 that inundated Hilo, killing 61 people and destroying more than 500 structures.

The mix of vintage clapboard and art deco buildings that survived the tsunamis, with skinny palms dancing before them, lends downtown Hilo a South Seas vibe somewhere between Somerset Maugham and From Here to Eternity. When I picture my dad on leave in Hawaii during World War II, I imagine him in a place that looks like this.
Hilo's not slick, even with contemporary Hawaiian designer Sig Zane's shop on the main drag selling his updated aloha shirts. Some structures appear as if they're dissolving with every drop of Hilo's 130 inches of annual rainfall (it's the country's wettest city).

I don't want to see Hilo crumble, but I'm not eager to see it change much, either. I feel the same way about Nori's Saimin & Snacks, a noodle house near downtown, where the udon wonton soup is part of our Hilo ritual. Hello Kitty merchandise fills shelves near the cash register, and in the booth beneath an incongruous Gustav Klimt print, a Honolulu family is clicking through pictures of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The son, in his late twenties, shakes his head as he looks at his camera. "You know," he says gravely, "I liked seeing the volcano, but it's all a bit desolate."

Soon, as we drive toward Kilauea ourselves, Becky and I pass the Kurtistown Samoan Seventh-Day Adventist Church, where the stained glass shows a dark-skinned Jesus standing before what looks like a volcano. I'm still fixated on the description of the park as desolate. Granted, there are plains of skin-ripping rock. But the ground is alive. Steam pours from vents and fissures, while in some areas molten lava bubbles barely 300 feet below where we hike. Geologic time is real time here: When I traverse the caldera on the four-mile Kilauea Iki Loop, the park's best day hike, I'm walking on rock that's the same age as I am.
At Volcano Village Lodge near the park, tree ferns on the edge of stands of native ohia envelop our room. The cedar space, with its expansive beamed ceiling, seems like an extension of the forest, and opening the windows, we hear calls of apapane birds singing from the high branches. The night is cool at 4,000 feet, chilly enough that we bring in soup and curry from Thai Thai, one of Volcano's few restaurants, then dine on our deck as a delicate patter of rain drips from the ohia.

The best time to experience Kilauea's ongoing eruption is before sunrise, hours ahead of the tour coaches from Kona, when you can witness an undulating orange glow and hear boulders banging around in the molten lava. So I make the quick drive into the park amid the early-morning darkness to the overlook of Kilauea's Hale- maumau Crater, said to be the dwelling place of Pele, the Hawaiian volcano goddess. Halemaumau has been erupting since 2008, sending a huge plume of steam, ash, and gas into the air.
On this morning it's just me and Pele for about 20 minutes, until a trio of kids runs up shouting, "LAVA LAVA LAVA!"

Beyond the national park, Highway 11 descends from Kilauea and through Ka'u, a remote region with coffees that rival Kona's best. In the far distance at the end of an arrowhead-shaped peninsula, we catch glimpses of South Point, the southernmost spot in the United States.

In Na'alehu we pass the country's southernmost bakery, restaurant, and bar as well as the wreck of the 1940 Na'alehu Theater, which I hope will become America's southernmost zigzag moderne theater restoration project. We lunch with the geckos that hang out on the lanai at Hana Hou, a bakery and restaurant that cooks up surprisingly tasty macadamia-crusted chicken with papaya chutney and a fabled mac-nut-cream pie.
Then, having detoured into the tin-roofed shack that houses the Once Upon a Story Community Book Store (presumably the country's southernmost bookstore), we reach South Point Road in a mile. The road runs for 12 miles through gusty grasslands, where scattered trees grow lopsided and parallel to the ground.

With no photo op marker at South Point, tourists pose before a tower that survives from an old navy facility. Meanwhile we set out on two-and-a-half miles of deeply rutted Jeep roads to the rare green sand beach at Papakolea. The beach sits in an amphitheater formed by a collapsed cinder cone. Technically Papakolea may not be where the country's destiny is fully manifest, but it is land's end as land's end should be, roiling and romantic, with the next landfall thousands of miles to the south in Antarctica.

Back on the highway, we twist into Kona coffee country and arrive in Holualoa-a great gallery destination. After looking for prints at Studio 7 Fine Arts, a onetime pool hall run by owner Hi- roki Morinoue's father, we escape the rain at Holuakoa Gardens and Cafe. It's too early for the celebrated Hawaiian-style brisket, but the fresh-caught ono is just about perfect, both in a salad and a sandwich.
We're staying at the Holualoa Inn, which spreads out at the end of a long driveway below the main road. It's an exotic, tropical sanctuary of polished eucalyptus floors and Balinese artwork collected by owner Cassandra Hazen. We climb to the second-floor Ginger Room, where a large Japanese fan and prints adorn walls stained a rich red. A walkway leads to a rooftop gazebo that looks out to the Kona Coast 1,400 feet below. Enormous magenta-colored ginger flowers unfurl in the gardens, and walking among the inn's thousands of coffee plants, I pick a crimson cherry, peeling away the fruit to reveal the pale green bean inside.

In the morning I venture out to kayak and snorkel on Keal- akekua Bay, where Captain Cook came ashore in 1779 and later died during a battle along the beach. According to the most cinematic account, the ships' billowing sails fulfilled a prophecy that Lono, the Hawaiian god of peace and harvest, would arrive in a floating temple with white banners. The villagers welcomed Cook in hundreds of canoes that were heavy with fruit, hogs (Hawaiians love their pork), and other offerings. But when Cook later returned to the bay, thefts by the Hawaiians and their growing weariness with these obviously ungodlike intruders escalated tensions, leading to Cook's death.
The outfitter Aloha Kayak Co. has paired me with Sean, who grew up on Kealakekua and is visiting from the mainland with his sons-carbon copies of him minus the ink and the pack of Kools. Paddling toward the snorkeling area in front of an obelisk installed 139 years ago by some fellow Brits to honor Cook, we are greeted by our own impressive welcoming party, as spinner dolphins live up to their names with corkscrewing leaps from the water.

We go through a channel between two large boulders, landing near a modest bronze plaque in the shallows that reads "Near this spot Capt. James Cook met his death February 14,1779." The snorkeling is absurdly beautiful, a garden of corals in blues, greens, and violets, with a Pixar-ready cast of parrot fish and butterfly fish, wide-eyed puffer fish and long-nosed trumpet fish. I swim to the reef's edge, where the shelf plunges into a blue-water abyss, then kick to shore and surface along the obelisk, its whiteness jarring after the fishes' vivid hues.
As we paddle back, the spinner dolphins return, swimming beneath the kayaks, then gazing up at us as they break the surface and exhale with sprays of breath that linger in the morning air.

OAHU - visiting Honolulu? How to escape the tourist traffic or Waikiki
Only a 15-minute beachfront walk from Waikiki, the area at the base of Diamond Head has much more of a neighborhood feel. Contemporary and tropical, with dark-stained wood floors and bronze-and-turquoise color schemes, rooms at the Lotus Honolulu take in the fabled landmark, with ocean views through wide gaps between buildings. Uncrowded Kaima- na Beach is right out the door.

HOT CHEFSBoasting two 2013 James Beard Award semifinalists, the modest Kaimuki district, a ten-minute drive away, proves that Honolulu's star chefs don't all cook in Waikiki. Quinten Frye serves such inventive small plates as a chicken-fried local rabbit in carrot butter and a bacon- and-egg sandwich with pork belly and kimchi miso at the low-key-cool Salt Bar & Kitchen. Ed Kenney's food, much like the rough-hewn interior of his restaurant, Town, combines modern and rustic- from a near-perfect poke- style ahi tartare on a risotto cake to a crisp, slow-roasted pork shoulder.
Get out early to nab parking for snorkeling at Hanauma Bay State Nature Preserve, then stop at Sandy Beach, the challenging body- surfing spot that's President Obama's favorite shorepound. In Kaiula, 13 miles on, go with lilikoi pancakes at Moke's Bread & Breakfast before hitting Kailua Beach Park.

With fish markets and lei makers, Chinatown is the anti-Waikiki. For historic Hawaiian sheet music, aloha shirts, and vintage ukuleles, Tin Can Mailman is a haven. Lucky Belly is known for ramen, but you won't regret a double- header of shrimp gyoza with an avocado-edamame mash and shrimp tempura tacos. Down the street, mixologist Justin Park preps his acclaimed Hotel Street Sour at the concrete bar of Manifest.

The glorious produce at Saturday morning's Kapi- olani Community College Farmers Market draws locals. But regional specialties, such as coffee from the Big Island's Ka'u region and chocolate made from cacao grown on Oahu's North Shore, have turned it into a tourist destination, too. Even for breakfast, the French dip with pho broth from The Pig & The Lady is revelatory, -m.j.

author Matt Jaffe is the author of The Santa Monica Mountains: Range on the Edge and Oaxaca: The Spirit of Mexico. His articles have appeared in Sunset, Budget Travel, and Arizona Highways.  Nov 2013  

Thursday, October 31, 2013

JFK Conspiracy Theories at 50

by David Reitzes

How the Skeptics Got It Wrong and Why It Matters
It has been called the mother of all conspiracy theories: the belief that the vibrant, widely admired 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was brutally cut down not by a lone gun­man with inscrutable motives, but by a shadowy cabal of—take your pick—mobsters, Communists, radical right-wingers, traitorous CIA operatives, or mutinous members of the military-industrial complex. The JFK assassination has been cited by countless commentators as the moment the U.S. lost its inno­cence, an event that seemed to open a veritable Pan­dora’s Box of evils that have been raging riot ever since. When Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassi­nated in Memphis in April 1968, Senator Robert F. Kennedy observed, “You know that fellow Harvey Lee Oswald, whatever his name is, set something loose in this country.”1 Two months later, RFK himself was dead from an assassin’s bullets. The presidency of JFK’s successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, engendered the “credibility gap,” as polls showed more and more Americans no longer trusted their government. The tragic and divisive Vietnam War was still unfolding when the Watergate scandal emerged, followed by years of malaise. For many, at least in retrospect, the JFK assassination marked the beginning of the end.

To dispel the shock and confusion that ensued after accused assassin Lee Harvey Oswald was gunned down during an abortive police transfer by stripclub operator Jack Ruby, President Johnson convened a blue-ribbon panel composed of distinguished leaders from both the public and private sectors and consisting of both Democrats and Republicans. The Warren Commission, as it came to be known after its chairman—Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren—has become one of the most vilified investigative panels in U.S. history, its name virtually synonymous with conspiracy or cover-up. Since the commission announced its conclusions in late 1964—principally that Lee Harvey Oswald alone killed Kennedy and there was no evidence of a con­spiracy—skepticism of its findings has become as persistent as taxes and, in the words of one writer, “an American obsession as deep as baseball.”2 Careful and sober analysis of the evidence af­firms the commission’s conclusions and vanquishes the arguments of the skeptics. So, 50 years on, what does it even mean to be a skeptic in this hotly contested debate? Surely it cannot be as simple as declaring, “I don’t trust the government, therefore I am a skeptic”; such an equation would abdicate independent thought in favor of pure cynicism. As Michael Shermer seeks to remind us, “skepticism is not a position; skepticism is an approach to claims, in the same way that science is not a subject but a method.”3 Skepticism of any government’s aims and efficacy is surely healthy—if not crucial—for a democracy; but the point is to use critical thinking to properly assess the evidence, not to merely doubt for the sake of doubting.

And conspiracies do happen, sometimes even at the highest levels of our government; Watergate and the Iran-Contra scandal were conspiracies that reached into the highest office in the land. People in positions of influence conspire to commit unethical and illegal acts every day; it is more commonly called corruption. Obviously, it is imperative that we remain alert to the possibility of very real conspiracies in our midst (eternal vigilance is the price of liberty, after all), but it is equally important that we use our critical faculties to distinguish verifiable evidence from idle speculation.

      The Warren Commission affirmed the earlier conclu­sions reached by the Dallas Police Department and the FBI: Texas School Book Depository employee Lee Harvey Oswald fired the shots that killed John F. Kennedy from the building’s south-eastern most sixth-floor window. Conspiracy theories positing Oswald as a lone gunman in league with other plotters have never gained much of a foothold in the popular imagination; the critical point has always been whether there was a second gunman.

Journalist Jefferson Morley has called the case “a kind of national Rorschach test of the American political psyche,” writing, “The choices we make—to accept the credibility of the Warren Commission.. .or to believe eyewitnesses who heard gunshots coming from the grassy knoll, and so decide more people were involved—are shaped, consciously and unconsciously, by our premises about the U.S. government and the way power is exercised in America.”4 Philadelphia attorney Vincent Salandria was one of numerous skeptics who combed through the 26 volumes of evidence published by the Warren Commis­sion and took heed of such witnesses. “My initial feeling,” he later explained, “was that if this were a simple assassination, as the Commission claimed, the facts would come together very neatly. If there were more than one assassin the details would not fit.”5 But is reality so neat and tidy? The confusion, shock, and pandemonium at the scene of the crime can hardly be overstated. Amidst the sensory assault of roaring motorcycles, wailing sirens, and the highly animated throng cheering the arrival of President John F. Kennedy and his elegant wife, Jacqueline, one of the most momentous events of the 20th century occurred in mere seconds. Eyewitness perceptions varied wildly. Some thought shots had come from be­hind the limousine (the vicinity of the Book Depository), while others thought they came from in front or from the right side (the grassy knoll);6 three wit­nesses thought the shots sounded as if they came from right inside the President’s car.7 One witness er­roneously thought a bystander was shot in the foot and fell down.8 One of the closest witnesses “thought [she] saw some men in plain clothes shooting back,” which certainly didn’t happen, “but everything was such a blur.”9 Early press bulletins reported that a Secret Service agent had been killed at the scene.10 Dallas Morning News reporter Hugh Aynesworth, himself an eyewitness, would later recall the diffi­culty of sorting out what people at the scene were telling him: “I remember interviewing people that said they saw certain things; some did, some didn’t. Even then there were people making up things. Even then! I remember interviewing a young couple where the guy was telling me that he had seen this and he had seen that, and his wife said, ‘You didn’t see that! We were back in the parking lot when it happened!’ Even then!”11 Skeptics were quick to emphasize the reports of eyewitnesses who seemed to contradict the official conclusion. Several witnesses said they had heard at least four shots fired, while the Warren Commission concluded there had only been three shots, all fired by Oswald. There was a clear consensus, however: 81 percent of the witnesses who expressed an opinion believed there had been precisely three shots. (The next most common opinion—at 12 percent— was two shots.)12 Few believed they had heard more than three shots, but these exceptions would receive an inordinate amount of attention from the doubters.

As to the direction the shots came from, the witnesses were undeniably divided.13 To explain this, it is important to understand not only the fragile na­ture of eyewitness testimony—particularly during moments of highly elevated stress14—but also prob­lems with eyewitness descriptions of gunfire in particular, as well as difficulties raised by specific conditions at the scene of the crime. The authorita­tive textbook, Firearms Investigation Identification and Evidence, states, “It is extremely difficult to tell the direction [from which a shot was fired] by the sound of discharge of a firearm.” The authors go on to note that “little credence” should be placed in such testi­mony.15 Not only that, but as Charles Manson-prose- cutor and later JFK-assassination author Vincent Bugliosi puts it, “Dealey Plaza resounds with echoes, the multistory buildings on the north, south, and east sides making it a virtual echo chamber.”16 Some eyewitnesses referred to the echoes in their testimony, and “strong reverberations and echoes” were later noted by a bioacoustics expert conducting ex­periments in Dealey Plaza for the House Select Com­mittee reinvestigating the crime in 1978.17 There is one fact that is hard to dispute, however:of the dozens of witnesses who described the sound of the shots, very few (you could count them on one hand) said that they came from more than one direc­tion.18 The rare exceptions, however, would soon be elevated to “star witness” status in pro-conspiracy books and documentaries; they are the ones the critics used to “prove” a conspiracy.

 The Parkland Hospital Professionals

            There are other eyewitnesses in this case, however, that the critics seized upon as being even more dam­aging to the official story: the doctors and nurses who straggled in vain to save the President’s life in Trauma Room One of Parkland Hospital in Dallas. In state­ments to the press that weekend and in their Warren Commission testimony, many of these medical profes­sionals made observations indicative—some strongly so—of shots from the President’s front rather than the rear. For example, some described a massive blowout to the rear of the head, rather than the right front— forward of the ear—where the autopsy report placed it. The wound in the President’s throat was also re­ferred to by some as an entrance wound, not the exit wound the autopsy pathologists determined it to be. Surely, the reasoning goes, these highly trained and experienced professionals could not all be wrong.

            But they were wrong, and research shows this is not at all unusual. A study published in 1993 in the Journal of the American Medical Association examined 46 cases involving fatal gunshot wounds over a five- year period. By comparing the post-mortem findings of a board-certified forensic pathologist to the previ­ous assessments made by trauma specialists, the study found that the trauma specialists made errors about the nature of bullet wounds (such as the num­ber of bullets involved and in distinguishing between entrance and exit wounds) in 52 percent of the cases. The study concluded “the odds that a trauma special­ist will correctly interpret certain fatal gunshot wounds are no better than the flip of a coin.”19 In truth, as with the Dealey Plaza witnesses, the testimony of the Parkland doctors and nurses is highly contradictory and confused.20 They were try­ing to save the President’s life, not examine his wounds to determine the direction of the shots.21


            If the eyewitness testimony was less than conclusive, perhaps the technology of photography offered an alternative. A Polaroid photograph taken by by­stander Mary Ann Moorman captured the grassy knoll at almost precisely the instant of the fatal shot to the President. Researcher David Lifton found a reproduction of the photograph in a book in 1965 and quickly spotted what appeared to be a puff of smoke in the background, “and, just behind it, a human form—someone apparently crouched behind the wall. Were my eyes deceiving me?”22 Lifton obtained a copy of the negative used by the book’s publisher and eagerly set about getting the film developed, even talking his way into the dark­room. “It was exciting and frightening,” he wrote. “Watching the images come up to full contrast, I felt I was joining the ranks of the eyewitnesses—a year and a half after the event. And perhaps my view was better.”23 These images weren’t “figments of my imagination,” he said, “but realities recorded by Mrs. Moorman’s camera.” Utilizing a higher quality source, Lifton would later conclude that this perceived gunman was, in fact, a photographic artifact, not a real person.24 In the meantime he had found another gunman in the photograph. And then another. And another. And yet another.25 His findings were disputed by researcher Josiah Thompson, who had found his own gunman (or, well, something) in a different spot in the same photograph.26 A 1988 British documentary series, The Men Who Killed Kennedy, placed great importance on an­other image discovered in the Moorman photo by re­searcher Gary Mack, of what was alleged to be a man in a police officer’s uniform firing a gun from behind the stockade fence, dubbed “Badge Man.” Independ­ent studies by photographic expert Geoffrey Crawley and assassination researcher Dale Myers determined that if Badge Man were a human being of average height and build, he would have been standing well behind the fence and elevated several feet above ground level (32 feet behind the fence and 4.5 feet above the ground, according to Myers’ study), which he described as “an unreasonable and untenable fir­ing position.”27 David Lifton eventually decided that there was a subjective component to all of these perceptions. “It became evident that those who were already in dis­agreement with the Warren Commission conclu­sions found it far easier to ‘see’ people on the knoll than those who believed in the Report,” he observed. “Eventually, I concluded that photographic enlarge­ments had very limited use as evidence.”28

 Tramps Like Us

            Some of the crime scene photographs had more to offer than blurs and shadows. There were the “three tramps” whose pictures were snapped by newsmen shortly after police officers pulled them from a rail­road boxcar behind the grassy knoll. The Warren Commission had never mentioned these characters; surely they could have been up to no good. Once Wa­tergate made national headlines, it was even pointed out that if you looked really hard, two of the three re­sembled Watergate conspirators Frank Sturgis and E. Howard Hunt—although comparisons of morpho­logical and metric features between the tramps and Sturgis and Hunt would ultimately rule them out as candidates.29 The story was revived in 1980, when contract killer Charles Harrelson (father of actor Woody), was in the midst of a six-hour standoff with Texas police. High on cocaine and threatening suicide, Harrelson claimed involvement in the Kennedy assassination. Researchers were quick to point out that Harrelson bore a resemblance to the tallest (“Sturgis”) tramp.30 Harrelson later recanted the tale,31 calling the alleged confession simply “an effort to elongate my life.”32 Later, a book was published alleging that the third tramp was Charles Frederick Rogers of Houston, who had disappeared following the gruesome 1965 mutila­tion murder of his parents. Before long, one Chauncey Marvin Holt came forward, claiming to have been the short (“Hunt”) tramp and a participant in a CIA assas­sination plot, along with Harrelson and Rogers.33 The true names of the three men finally surfaced in Dallas police files released to the public in 1989, and journalists were able to confirm their identities, track­ing down two who were still alive and a family mem­ber of the third, who was deceased. The three tramps were John Forrester Gedney, Gus W. Abrams, and Harold Doyle; they were, in the end, tramps after all.34

Umbrella Man

            Then there was the case of the “Umbrella Man,” a mysterious figure glimpsed in several photos, stand­ing at the side of the road with an open umbrella over his head on a perfectly sunny day. Was he a con­spirator signaling to gunmen in the surrounding areas, perhaps? Or could the umbrella itself have been a sophisticated weapon, as one researcher pos­tulated at length?35 After years of anonymity and considerable speculation, the Umbrella Man was outed by a friend to the Dallas press; his name was Louie Steven Witt. Dimly aware that the image of former British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain’s trademark umbrella was associated with then-Am- bassador Joseph P. Kennedy’s support for Chamberlain’s policy of Nazi appeasement in the late 1930s, Witt had come to Dealey Plaza to heckle the Presi­dent—albeit at the worst possible moment. “I think if the Guinness Book of World Records had a category for people who were at the wrong place at the wrong time, doing the wrong thing,” Witt told the House committee in 1978, “I would be No. 1 in that position, without even a close runner-up.”36

 Mysterious Deaths

            One of the most durable myths surrounding the JFK assassination concerns the “mysterious deaths” of as­sassination witnesses, a story publicized nationally in 1967 by Ramparts magazine. The idea had originated with Penn Jones, the cantankerous writer/editor/ publisher of a six-page, weekly newspaper in rural Midlothian, Texas, who was compiling a list of wit­nesses who had passed away under allegedly suspi­cious circumstances. The story appealed to Ramparts editor Warren Hinckle, who had been put off by what he perceived as the overly academic style of the mate­rial the Warren Commission’s critics were submitting to him. “I wanted something that would get people talking about the Warren Report with the cynicism they did about the weather report,” Hinckle later recalled. “In my book, the only reliable indicator of what is weighing on the national consciousness is what people are talking about in neighborhood bars. The books that had come out criticizing the Warren Report had stirred the nation’s intellectuals but left the masses becalmed. I wanted to churn the bars.”37 Neither Jones nor Hinckle saw a problem in the fact that of the dozen-plus witnesses on the “mysterious deaths” list, only one of them could, in fact, be considered a witness to the assassination. Others in­cluded Oswald’s landlady, two newsmen who wrote about the case, one of Jack Ruby’s lawyers, the cab driver who gave Oswald a ride following the assassi­nation, one of Jack Ruby’s strippers, the husband of another stripper, the brother of an eyewitness to Oswald’s slaying of Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit approximately 45 minutes after the assassination, and TV game show fixture Dorothy Kilgallen. Even the Ramparts staff felt the need to qualify their inclusion of Kilgallen’s name on the list, stating, “We know of no serious person who really believes that the death of Dorothy Kilgallen, the gossip columnist, was re­lated to the Kennedy assassination. Still, she was pas­sionately interested in the case, told friends she firmly believed there was a conspiracy and that she would find out the truth if it took her all her life.”38 Few of these deaths were even all that mysteri­ous, contrary to the way they are presented in the Ramparts article.39 But factual accuracy was never re­ally the point. Sitting in a Brooklyn bar one day, Hinckle was gratified to hear "a toothless old lady tell the fellow next to her about ‘all these people who got murdered down in Texas because they knew who killed Kennedy’—I knew then that the national con­sciousness barrier had been cracked.”40
Back and to the Left”: The Zapruder Film

            If there is a single piece of evidence that Warren Commission skeptics have held up as irrefutable proof of a conspiracy, it is what has come to be known as the “head snap”: the moment in the motion picture film captured by bystander Abraham Zapruder when the / President is shot in the head and it snaps strongly to his left. This shocking and iconic image provides the climactic moment in Oliver Stone’s controversial con­spiracy movie, JFK, shown repeatedly as actor Kevin Costner narrates: “This is the key shot. Watch it again. The President going back to his left. Shot from the front and right. Totally inconsistent with the shot from the Depository. Again—back and to the left... back and to the left.. .back and to the left,”41 But does this really prove a shot from the front? Medical experts convened by the Rockefeller Com­mission in 1975 42 evaluated the “head snap” and were “unanimous in finding that the violent backward and leftward motion of the President’s upper body following the head shot was not caused by the impact of a bullet coming from the front or right front.”43 Drs. [Werner] Spitz, [Richard] Lindenberg and [Fred] Hodges reported that such a motion would be caused by a violent straightening and stiffening of the entire body as a result of a seizure-like neuromuscular reaction to major damage inflicted to nerve centers in the brain.

Dr. [Alfred] Olivier reported that the violent motions of the President s body following the head shot could not possibly have been caused by the impact of the bullet. He attributed the popular misconception on this subject to the dramatic effects employed in tele­vision and motion picture productions. The impact of such a bullet, he explained, can cause some immediate movement of the head in the direction of the bul­let, but it would not produce any significant movement of the body.44 An immediate movement of the head in the direction of the bullet, in fact, is what can be seen at the instant of impact, between Zapruder frames 312 and 313, as the President’s head moves forward (2.3 inches forward, according to one study), prior to the more obvious lurch to the left beginning in frame 314.45 Other experts agree, including the members of the 1978 House committee’s forensic pathology panel (see below),46 as well as Vincent Di Maio, a longtime forensic pathologist and author of the widely used textbook, Gunshot Wounds: Practical Aspects of Firearms, Ballistics, and Forensic Techniques. In re­sponse to a suggestion that a “transfer of momen­tum” from a bullet could be responsible for the head snap, Di Maio, without hesitation, said, “No. That’s make-believe. That’s [something out of] Arnold Schwarzenegger pictures.”47 Even forensic expert Cyril Wecht, long one of the most vociferous critics of the Warren Commis­sion, when asked whether it is a “matter of physics” that a body will move in the same direction as a bullet that strikes it, testified (in the murder trial of Lyle and Erik Menendez) that “some of the [Newtonian] concepts, indeed are applicable and relevant, but you have to then factor in the biological element, the en­tire neuromuscular system and so on, all of the volun­tary and involuntary reflexive aspects of it.” “Sir [Isaac] Newton and others just never dealt with those things. ... That’s just a very different situation.”48

Shots in the Dark

      In the face of ballooning doubts about the Warren Commission’s conclusions, the House Select Com­mittee on Assassinations was established to reinvesti­gate JFK’s killing and pass judgment on the commission’s findings. By the time the committee wrapped up its investigation, it had used state of the art forensic techniques to resolve numerous questions about the assassination and the evidence, and validate the Warren Commission’s core conclusions. However, in a move strongly contested by several committee members, the HSCA also endorsed the findings of a computer science professor and his as­sistant, indicating that a shot had indeed been fired from the grassy knoll.

The evidence was an audio recording of police radio transmissions made at the approximate time of the assassination from an unknown police motorcycle with its microphone stuck in the “on” position. While the recording contained no audible sounds of gunfire, the HSCA endorsed the theory that the motorcycle in question was part of the presidential motorcade; and that waveforms of sounds on the tape, as plotted by a computer on a lengthy strip of graph paper, were iden­tical to waveforms of actual test shots fired in Dealey Plaza, three from the Texas School Book Depository and one from the grassy knoll. There was a high probability, the committee concluded, that a conspiracy had killed John F. Kennedyf49 When the findings were subjected to peer review by a National Academy of Sciences committee, how­ever, the failings of the HSCA’s conspiracy theory were revealed. The Committee on Ballistic Acoustics, better known as the Ramsey Panel—after its chairman, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Norman F. Ramsey— found that not only was there no evidence of gun shots on the Dallas recording, but the waveforms iden­tified as shots were actually recorded approximately one minute after the assassination, as voices in the recording indicated that the limousine had already been instructed to head for Parkland Hospital.50 The House committee’s conspiracy evidence was a bust.

Even as the HSCA was confirming the case against Oswald as the lone assassin, doubters were shifting into overdrive, pointing fingers at an ever-increasing cast of conspiracy suspects. While conspiracy theo­rists insist that their accusations are drawn from evi­dence, the motley assortment of suspects they have come up with suggests that bias plays a more prominent role.

The Radical Right

When news of the assassination was broadcast, many initially assumed that the blame lay with members of Dallas’ highly vocal, radical right wing, who despised Kennedy for his support of the civil rights movement and for his perceived weakness in the face of Com­munism. In fact, a number of associates had warned the President not to travel to Dallas, where U.N. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson had been spat at and struck with a demonstrator’s picket sign just a month earlier at a United Nations Day event. “Welcome Mr. Kennedy to Dallas,” read the facetious headline of a full-page ad in the Dallas Morning News of November 22, over a series of questions accusing the President of selling the country out to Communists. On the morning of the assassination, thousands of handbills were distributed on Dallas streets with photos of front and side views of the President’s face arranged like a mug shot; the headline read, “WANTED FOR TREASON.”51 Suspicions of a right wing plot took a seemingly lethal blow when the suspect—Oswald—turned out to be a self-professed Marxist and ardent supporter of Fidel Castro. Even the President’s grieving widow Jacqueline was taken aback. “He didn’t even have the satisfaction of being killed for civil rights,” she said. “It had to be some silly little Communist.”52 It seemed to rob his death of any meaning.53 In fact, the Soviets could have been none too pleased to learn that the accused assassin was the un­stable young man they had reluctantly allowed to de­fect to Russia in 1959 after he attempted suicide in Moscow. (Thoroughly disillusioned with the state of Marxism in the U.S.S.R., he had returned to the United States two years later.) Within hours of JFK’s death, Soviet propaganda organs were declaring the assassination to be the work of a radical right wing cabal.54 The theme was picked up by left-leaning journalists in Europe and the U.S.55 Over a decade later the KGB would fabricate and disseminate evi­dence intended to link Oswald to Soviet intelli­gence’s arch enemy, the CIA.56 To those who were predisposed to certain suspi­cions, however, little evidence, authentic or otherwise, was really necessary. Describing her “instantaneous skepticism about the official version of what happened in Dallas,”57 conspiracy author Sylvia Meagher recalled the moment she heard JFK’s death announced on the radio. “Someone in the room screamed with shock and grief,” Meagher wrote. “Someone cursed the John Birch Society and its kind. ‘Don’t worry,’ I said deri­sively, you’ll see, it was a Communist who did it.’”58

 The Red Menace

Indeed, Oswald’s leftist background was quickly seized upon by red baiters everywhere. Dallas assis­tant district attorney Bill Alexander, incensed by the immediate nationwide condemnations of notori­ously conservative Dallas, even spoke of charging Oswald with participation in a Communist conspiracy.59 “I wanted to expose Oswald for what he was, a Communist,” Alexander said later. “I thought some­one should emphasize it. I knew that [the conspiracy charge] wouldn’t hold up, but it needed to be said.”60 Theories of Oswald as a Communist agent, in fact, would not fare well. While he was an avowed leftist, the simple fact is that other leftists he came into contact with wanted nothing to do with him.

His bogus chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba Commit­tee in New Orleans was a one-man operation, com­plete with documents he created himself.61 He sent a (later world-famous) photograph of himself dressed in black and brandishing a rifle to the editors of The Militant, a Trotskyist newspaper (to show them he was “ready for anything”); the recipients quickly threw it out, fearing Oswald to be either a nut or a provocateur.62 When he caused a scene at the Cuban consulate in Mexico City in October 1963, insisting upon a travel visa to Cuba so he could join Castro’s revolution, a consulate staffer refused and told him point blank that someone like him could bring the revolution nothing but harm.63

CIA: The Enemy Within?

Conspiracy theories involving secret societies have been with us for centuries, frequently oriented along religious lines. Religious themes are largely passe among modern conspiracists, but there is one secret society of sorts that may inspire suspicion among Americans from every walk of life and of all political persuasions.

The moment Jack Ruby stepped from the shadows to gun down Oswald, prominent researcher Vin­cent Salandria says he knew that the CIA had killed Kennedy. “The use of a Mafia-related killer [sic] to dispatch the patsy while in custody, and that patsy’s patently falsoleft-wing and liberal guises, convinced me that the assassination was the work of U.S. intelligence.” 64 “The nature of the conspiracy that took President Kennedy’s life was from the outset quite ob­vious to anyone who knew how to look and was will­ing to do so,” declares researcher Martin Schotz. “I and other ordinary citizens know, know for a fact, that there was a conspiracy and that it was organized at the highest levels of the CIA.”65 “Is there any doubt that Lee Harvey Oswald, quickly and deliberately por­trayed by the Government as a simple, superficial personality—a lone nut—was clearly a well-trained and groomed tool of the intelligence establishment?” former HSCA investigator Gaeton Fonzi asked a gath­ering of assassination researchers.66 “This, I suggest, should be our challenging cry for the future: We know who killed President Kennedy. Why don’t you?67 Granted, as secret societies go, the Central Intel­ligence Agency has two clear strikes against it: first, in contrast to some organizations that have been sin­gled out for suspicion over the years, the CIA un­doubtedly exists; and, second, it was not so long after the Warren Commission closed up shop that public revelations of CIA involvement in plans to assassinate foreign leaders began raising questions about pre­cisely who authorized such plots and whether such ruthless methods could conceivably be employed against, say, a highly placed domestic target.

After this, however, evidence of the Agency’s culpability in the President’s slaying begins to get scarce. CIA accusers point to a commonly cited (but anonymously sourced) claim that President Kennedy had threatened to “splinter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter it to winds” after the Bay of Pigs debacle, as well as claims that Agency personnel were bitter about his conduct during the aborted invasion.68 But historians agree that, once fences were mended, Kennedy enjoyed an unusually close rela­tionship with the Agency—a relationship that, ac­cording to one CIA-commissioned report, “would only rarely be matched in future administrations.”69 Only weeks before his death, JFK had this to say about allegations of CIA misconduct in Vietnam: “I think that while the CIA may have made mistakes, as we all do, on different occasions, and has had many successes which may go unheralded, in my opinion in this case it is unfair to charge them as they have been charged. I think they have done a good job.”70 Conspiracy theorists also may find it self-evi­dently suspicious that President Johnson appointed to the Warren Commission former CIA director Allen Dulles, who had resigned in the wake of the Bay of Pigs. Whose idea was this? It turns out that LBJ actu­ally recruited Dulles for the commission at the request of Attorney General Robert Kennedy.71 Contrary to the speculation that runs rampant in pro-conspiracy liter­ature, JFK and Dulles greatly admired one another, and the Kennedy brothers had considerable praise for Dulles well after the Bay of Pigs invasion.72 Suspicions about the CIA often begin with ques­tions about whether Oswald’s highly unusual defec­tion to the Soviet Union in 1959 was authentic. One of the originators of the hypothesis that Oswald was not a genuine defector but an intelligence agent was author Harold Weisberg. But after nearly 40 years of pioneering research, Weisberg acknowledged that the Warren Commission “checked into almost every breath [Oswald] drew,”73 and candidly admitted to Vincent Bugliosi that “much as it looks like Oswald was some kind of agent for somebody, I have not found a shred of evidence to support it, and he never had an extra penny.”74

 Not-So-Cold Warriors

The theory that may well be the most far-fetched nevertheless demands close attention, as it picks upon psychological wounds that, for many who lived through the 1960s and 1970s, never fully healed. In the long, bitter aftermath of the Vietnam War, under­standable psychological factors like grief, regret, and nostalgia for a Golden Age, however illusory—writ­ers began mythologizing the “Camelot” of JFK’s administration within weeks of his demise75—have inspired tendentious interpretations of how Kennedy might have saved us from the horrors and shame of Vietnam, had he only lived. Once confined to the fringes, such notions went mainstream with the success of Oliver Stone’s JFK, which endorsed the idea that high-ranking members of the military- industrial complex executed President Kennedy be­cause he posed a serious threat to the war machine and its attendant profits.

According to Stone, a once-secret document, National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 263, proves that JFK intended to withdraw from Viet­nam by the end of 1965, beginning with the removal of 1,000 advisors by the end of 1963. But, as the docu­ment states, this was based on assurances by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and General Maxwell Taylor that “the major part of the U.S. military task can be completed by the end of 1965... [B]y the end of this year, the U.S. program for training Vietnamese should have progressed to the point where 1,000 U.S. military personnel assigned to South Vietnam can be withdrawn.” These plans were contingent upon the success of U.S. efforts to stabilize South Vietnam’s security and end the repressive policies of its increasingly tyrannical government. If these conditions were not met, U.S. involvement would continue.76 Histo­rian Stanley Karnow explains: Early in 1963, South Vietnam’s rigid President Ngo Dinh Diem was cracking down on internal dissidents, throwing the country into chaos. Fearing that the turmoil would benefit the Communist insurgents, Kennedy conceived of bringing home one thousand of the sixteen thousand American military advisers as a way of prodding Diem into behaving more leniently. Kennedy’s decision was codified in National Security Action Memorandum, or NSAM 263. Its aim was to “indicate our displeasure” with Diem and “create significant uncertainty” in him “as to the future intentions of the United States.” Kennedy hoped the scheme, which also scheduled a reduction of the U.S. forces over the next two years, would give the South Vietnamese the chance to strengthen themselves.77 The strategy was unsuccessful, resulting in Kennedy’s acquiescence to the November 1,1963, military coup that toppled the Diem regime and, as noted in the Pentagon Papers, inadvertently deepened U.S. involvement in Vietnam.78 Had the President really decided to withdraw from Vietnam? In July of 1963, he stated, “In my opinion, for us to withdraw from that effort would mean a collapse not only of South Vietnam, but Southeast Asia, so we are going to stay there.”79 On September 2, Kennedy stated, in an interview with Walter Cronkite, “I don’t agree with those who say we should withdraw. That would be a great mistake.” One week later, he was asked if he had “any reason to doubt this so-called ‘domino theory,’ that if South Vietnam falls, the rest of Southeast Asia will go be­hind it?” “No, I believe it. I believe it,” JFK re­sponded. “I think we should stay.” There is conflicting evidence about JFK’s atti­tude during the post-coup period (by which time, Oliver Stone and the other theorists insist the con­spiracy to kill him was already well underway).80 The day he left for Dallas, Kennedy met with Michael Forrestal, assistant to national security advi­sor McGeorge Bundy, whom he reportedly told, “I want to start a complete and very profound review of how we got into this country; what we thought we were doing; and what we now think we can do. I even want to think about whether or not we should be there.”81 Longtime aide Kenneth O’Donnell said that Kennedy told him that he was beginning to think about withdrawal.82 JFK even allegedly told anti-war Oregon senator Wayne Morse, “Wayne, I want you to know you’re absolutely right in your crit­icism of my Vietnam policy. Keep this in mind. I’m in the midst of an intensive study which substanti­ates your position on Vietnam.”83 A1991 Newsweek article noted that such reports, “even if not colored by wishful memories, could have been tinged with politics. And the 1,000- man withdrawal—around 6 percent of the total— was just a token that might never have been repeated. McGeorge Bundy.. .doesn’t believe it signified any shift of policy. ‘I don’t think we know what he would have done if he’d lived,’ Bundy said last week. ‘I don’t know, and I don’t know anyone who does know.' ” 84 Secretary of State Dean Rusk was also skeptical that JFK was planning to withdraw: “I had hundreds of talks with John F. Kennedy about Vietnam, and never once did he say anything of this sort to his own secretary of state.”85 In Fort Worth, Texas, on the morning of No­vember 22, Kennedy made his last statement about Vietnam: “Without the United States, South Viet­nam would collapse overnight.”86 At the moment JFK was cut down, he was only minutes away from delivering a speech at the Dallas Trade Mart, in which he had planned to reaffirm his commitment not only to Vietnam, but another eight countries lo­cated on or near the border of the Communist bloc. “Our assistance to these nations can be painful, risky and costly,” the text of the speech reads. “But we dare not weary of the task.”87 The following year, the slain President’s closest advisor and confidant, Robert F. Kennedy, dis­cussed his brother’s views in a Kennedy Library oral history interview with John Bartlow Martin. “The President.. .had a strong, overwhelming reason for being in Vietnam and [believing] that we should win the war in Vietnam,” RFK stated, “[it would mean] the loss of all of Southeast Asia if you lost Vietnam. ... [which would] have profound effects as far as our position throughout the world, and our position in a rather vital part of the world.” “There was never any consideration given to pulling out?” he was asked. “No,” Kennedy replied.88 Following a personal investigation into the roots of political uprisings in Asia and Latin America the following year, Robert Kennedy’s views on Vietnam began to change,89 reflecting RFK aide Adam Wolin- sky’s concern that not only was the U.S. pursuing a “foreign policy based on force, a reliance on military pressure almost to the complete exclusion of politics,” but also—and crucially—“a simplistic equation of rev­olution with communist conspiracy.”90 Once he began criticizing the Johnson administration’s Vietnam policies, RFK would have had much to gain polit­ically by suggesting that his evolving views had been influenced by his late brother. But instead, he candidly admitted to confidant Arthur Schlesinger, “Well, I don’t know what would be best: to say that he [JFK] didn’t spend much time thinking about Vietnam; or to say that he did and messed it up.”91 As journalist Tom Wicker notes, “Kennedy might not have expanded the war as President John­son did in 1964,” however, “It seems less likely that Kennedy had already decided, at the time of his death, to extricate the nation from the quagmire of Vietnam.. .1 know of no reputable historian who has documented Kennedy’s intentions, much less found them the motive for his murder.”92


When all else fails, conspiricists can always try to pin the assassination on organized crime. That’s what G. Robert Blakey did. Blakey had worked under Robert Kennedy at the Justice Department and drafted the landmark Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organi­zations Act (RICO act)—anti-racketeering legisla­tion that was signed into law in 1970. As Chief Counsel to the HSCA, he took it upon himself to ex­plain who had been responsible for the conspiracy indicated by the committee’s acoustical theory, something the committee declined to do. As the HSCA ended its investigation, Blakey held a press conference to announce, “I am now firmly of the opinion that the Mob did it. It is a historical truth. The Committee report does not say the Mob did it. I said it. I think the Mob did it.”93 But, as with other suspects, the actual evidence is slim. Journalist Richard Billings, Blakey’s co-au­thor on the HSCA Report as well as Blakey’s own conspiracy book, The Plot to Kill the President, sum­marizes it this way: “The main piece of evidence of Organized Crime complicity in the conspiracy is Jack Ruby. .. ,[I]f you’re going to determine the final an­swer to this crime, the murder of the president, the character of Ruby is crucial.”94 This is bad news for conspiracy theorists. As Dallas Morning News colum­nist Tony Zoppi, who knew Ruby quite well, puts it, “It is so ludicrous to believe that Ruby was part of the mob. The conspiracy theorists want to believe every­body but those who really knew him. .. .He was a real talker, a fellow who would talk your ear off if he had the chance. You have to be crazy to think any­body would have trusted Ruby to be a part of the mob. He couldn’t keep a secret for five minutes.”95 As Vincent Bugliosi points out, Ruby’s personal­ity could hardly be less like that of a cool, calculating, professional hit man: “FBI agents may have inter­viewed close to one hundred people who knew Ruby well, and in their published reports in the Warren Commission volumes the reader would be hard- pressed to find one interviewee who did not mention Ruby’s temper, or at least how ‘very emotional’ he was, if the question of Ruby’s temperament was dis­cussed.”96 He was prone to sudden, sometimes sav­age bursts of violence. William Serur knew Ruby for over a decade, and said that Ruby “explodes and gets mad quicker than any person I ever saw.”97 As he re­called, “In the last few years I thought he might have been suffering from some form of ... mental distur­bance, by the way he acted.”98 In fact, evidence brought out at Ruby’s trial showed that Ruby suffered from organic brain damage.99 “I don’t think he is sane,” said one stripper who worked for him.100 American Guild of Variety Artists official Johnnie Hayden called Ruby a “kook” because of his unpre­dictable and erratic outbursts.101 Edward Pullman, whose wife worked for Ruby, called him “insane. He was a psycho. .. .He was not right.”102 Ruby was many things: small-time nightclub op­erator, unsuccessful entrepreneur, barroom brawler, police groupie, would-be FBI informant (it didn’t work out, as the Bureau concluded that he simply had no useful information to offer).103 However, there is one thing he was not: a criminal. So says Bill Alexander, who prosecuted Ruby for Oswald’s mur­der and sought the death penalty against him. “He didn’t steal. He didn’t pimp. He wasn’t a drank. Jack wasn’t a lawbreaker.”104 Testifying before the HSCA, Jack Revill of the Dallas police’s criminal intelligence section rejected the idea that Ruby had any involvement with organ­ized crime. “Jack Ruby was the type of person who would have been acquainted with persons involved in gambling activities and other criminal activities, but as far as Jack Ruby being actively engaged or a mem­ber of any groups, no .. .Jack Ruby was a buffoon. He liked the limelight. He was highly volatile. He liked to be recognized with people, and I would say this to this committee: if Jack Ruby was a member of organized crime, then the personnel director of organized crime should be replaced.”105 Nevertheless, conspiracy theorists commonly insist that if Ruby can be shown to have been (to use Revell’s term) acquainted with suspicious characters, then surely that must prove something. The most oft-repeated allegation is that Ruby made a number of phone calls to Mob-connected individuals in the months prior to the assassination, as documented in black and white by his telephone records. Is this evi­dence that the Mafia ordered Oswald’s murder or the Kennedy assassination? No. “Correlation does not mean causation.”106 Just because one event follows another does not mean they are connected. In fact, a great deal of tes­timony indicates that the phone calls in question were related to Ruby’s professional grievances with the American Guild of Variety Artists (AGVA), which represented the strippers he employed at his night­club. The AGVA “was riddled with corruption and compromised by its mob connections,”107 so anyone dealing with the AGVA could have been rubbing shoulders with the Mob, whether they realized it or not. There is no evidence that Ruby had any significant relationship to organized crime or that any of his phone calls or actions were related to a conspir­acy. (In fact, genuine Mob connections would have been most helpful in his lengthly and frustrating bat­tles with the AGVA.)108

 The Assassin

How do we navigate a path through the complex morass of claims, speculation, rumors, and confu­sion that seems to hopelessly engulf this subject? We use critical thinking tools to discern the most reli­able evidence.

Immediately following the assassination, eyewit­nesses directed police to two areas in Dealey Plaza: behind the stockade fence on the grassy knoll, from which many thought they had heard shots (but where no one had actually seen a gunman)109 and the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository, where a gunman had been sighted.110 A thorough search of the grassy knoll area turned up no evidence of any kind: no suspect, no weapon, no spent shells, and no other evidence of a crime. The Book Depository was an­other story: police found shipping cartons of books arranged by a southeast comer window into a sniper’s perch—where someone could sit and aim a rifle out the window—surrounded by a wall of cartons that hid the corner from the rest of the sixth floor. Three spent rifle shells were found nearby. A bolt-action,Italian, Mannlicher-Carcano rifle was found stashed between boxes on the opposite side of the floor, on the way to the stairwell. Ballistic markings as distinctive as fingerprints proved that the three shells had been fired from that rifle to the exclusion of all others. One nearly intact bullet and several bullet fragments were recovered from the presidential limou­sine and at Parkland Hospital; the bullet and the two largest of the recovered fragments were proved by ballistic markings—again, as distinctive as fingerprints—to have been fired from that rifle.111 Who owned the rifle? Documentary evidence assembled over the next two days established that the weapon had been purchased through the mail under an assumed name by Lee Harvey Oswald, one of the few Book Depository employees who had not gone outside to watch the mo­torcade. Oswald’s palm print was found on the weapon, and fingerprints lifted from the trigger housing were later determined to be his.112 Hand­writing experts unanimously agreed that it was Oswald’s handwriting on the order form, as well as on the paperwork for the post office box where he had the rifle delivered.113 It was not necessary for the police to launch a manhunt for Oswald; he was already under arrest for the murder of po­lice officer J. D. Tippit, gunned down approximately 45 minutes after the President’s murder. Oswald had fled the scene of the crime, taken a cab to the room he rented in suburban Oak Cliff, apparently picked up the handgun he had also purchased through the mail, and then killed the first police officer he encountered.114 The autopsy of the President—as well as the medical examination of Texas Governor John Connally, who was critically wounded during the shooting but survived—confirmed that the shots had come from above and behind the limousine, not the grassy knoll.115 Later reviews of the au­topsy photographs and X-rays by panels of forensic experts appointed by Attorney General Ramsey Clark in 1968, the Rockefeller Commission in 1975, and the HSCA in 1978 affirmed the conclusions of the autopsy re­port.116 Following Oswald’s lead (“I’m just a patsy!” he famously cried; “Don’t believe all that so-called evidence,” he told his brother)117, it has become an article of faith for many conspiracy theorists that any hard evidence implicating Oswald must be forged: the autopsy report, the autopsy photo­graphs and X-rays, the ballistic evidence, the crime scene evidence, the handwriting evidence, the “backyard photos” of Oswald with the murder weapon—all forged. The HSCA’s panel of photographic experts subjected the autopsy materials and the backyard photographs to exhaustive tests to uncover evidence of fakery; no such evidence could be found.118 But the release of the committee’s report in 1979 did nothing to stem the tide of speculation. No evidence was safe from accusations of forgery—not even the legendary Zapruder film or the minutely studied Moorman Polaroid, and not even excluding the slain president’s body itself. Such hypotheses are constructs arising from the a priori assumption that Lee Oswald had been framed by evil forces capable of ruthlessly accomplishing anything they desired—anything, that is, except removing John F. Kennedy from of­fice by any means other than a public execution in broad daylight.

The Single Bullet Theory

            Of all the Warren Commission’s findings, none has been so contentious as the single bullet theory, the conclusion that the bullet which inflicted the first wound to the President at the base of the neck exited his throat and went on to inflict several wounds to Governor John B. Connally, seated in front of the President. Critics commonly suggest that the scenario was fab­ricated out of thin air in order to explain how a lone gunman could have fired the shots in the requisite time, as established by the Zapruder film.

According to then-Warren Commission junior counsel (and later five-term U.S. Senator from Penn­sylvania) Arlen Specter, it was James J. Humes, the pathologist who supervised the autopsy of the slain President, who first voiced the possibility that JFK and Governor Connally had been struck by the same bullet.119 During his March 16,1964, testimony, Humes noted that “as much as we could ascertain from our X-rays and physical examinations, this mis­sile struck no bony structures in traversing the body of the late President.” Referring to a frame in the Za­pruder film at approximately the time of the first bullet strike, Humes stated, “I see that Governor Connally is sitting directly in front of the late Presi­dent, and suggest the possibility that this missile, having traversed the low neck of the late President, in fact traversed the chest of Governor Connally.”120 If Humes was right, it would explain not only the timing of the shooting, but also where the first bullet that struck the President went after exiting his body (as no bullet was found in the car, and there was no damage from such a bullet). It would also ex­plain why the entrance wound on Governor Con­nally’s back was ovoid rather than the typically round shape of a bullet entrance wound (because its pas­sage through the President’s body caused it to yaw or tumble).121 Arlen Specter and others serving with the War­ren Commission were initially skeptical of the hy­pothesis,122 but a reconstruction of the shooting by agents of the FBI and Secret Service in Dealey Plaza affirmed its plausibility.123 With slight qualification, the commission endorsed the theory.124 To Warren Commission critics, be they assassination buffs or ex­perts as distinguished as Cyril Wecht, the hypothesis is utterly untenable. Wecht is proud to point out that he was the advisor responsible for shaping one of the most memorable scenes in Oliver Stone’s JFK,125 in which the single bullet theory is ridiculed by actor Kevin Costner and denounced as “One of the gross­est lies ever forced on the American people.”126 But Wecht’s information, and therefore the widely seen portrayal of the theory, was glaringly in­accurate.127 Wecht had been one of nine highly dis­tinguished members of the HSCA’s forensic pathology panel,128 and was surely aware that the panel had found his understanding of the evidence flawed and his arguments to be without merit. The panel (with Wecht’s dissent noted) concluded that the evidence unequivocally supported the single bul­let theory.129 (In response, Wecht could only specu­late about possible government affiliations that could taint his colleagues’ integrity.)130 The single bullet theory was supported by oth­ers consulted by the House committee, including photographic expert Calvin McCamy, who chaired a panel of 20 experts who utilized the Zapruder film and photogrammetric techniques to plot the precise positions of JFK and Governor Connally in the lim­ousine;131 and NASA staff engineer Thomas Canning (that’s right, an actual rocket scientist), who plotted the trajectories of the shots that struck the two men.132 Meticulous reconstructions of the shooting by the British Broadcasting Company,133 the Discovery Channel,134 and Dr. John Lattimer,135 as well as highly accurate 3D computer models of the assassination by Failure Analysis Associates, Inc. (now Exponent),136 and Emmy-award winning animator Dale Myers137 have confirmed again and again the plausibility, if not certainty, of the single bullet theory. Vincent Bugliosi concludes, “‘the single-bullet theory’ is an obvious misnomer. Though in its incipient stages it was but a theory, the indisputable evidence is that it is now a proven fact, a wholly supported conclusion.”138

 Cui Bono, Redux

            Why did Oswald do it? The Warren Commission heard testimony and examined psychological evalua­tions from his teen years suggesting he was a greatly troubled individual.139 He had documented in his own words the contempt he felt for the capitalist sys­tem of government and the United States in particu­lar.140 The commission heard testimony indicating a history of violence, from the time he threatened his sister-in-law with a knife as a teen,141 to the numer­ous witnesses who testified about the physical abuse he directed at his wife.142 Documentary evidence supports his widow’s testimony that Oswald had made a failed assassination attempt against local rad­ical right extremist Major General Edwin Walker, a vehement detractor of Oswald’s idol, Fidel Castro.143 Oswald’s interest in Castro, of course, is well docu­mented, including his pro-Cuba street protests in the summer of 1963, and his failed attempt to secure a visa to Cuba in October of that year.144 The commis­sion heard testimony that Oswald aspired to great­ness, though greatness had thus far eluded him;145 that he believed that societal change could only be 1 brought about by violent means;146 that he had ac­cess to information published in 1963 indicating that the Kennedy administration was seeking to remove Castro from power using covert, violent methods.147 Oswald never confessed to the assassination, so it is im­possible to state definitively what his motives were. But when a mentally unstable, radically leftist, violently inclined Castro idolater like Oswald, with aspirations to greatness and a belief in the power of violence to enact political change, murders the man who is at once the personification of a social structure he despises and the man Fidel Castro has singled out as his great­est enemy, and who already made an assassination attempt on Major General Walker, it makes sense.

      As author David Aaronovitch discusses in his book, Voodoo His­tories, it has become fashionable in recent years to defend con­spiracy theories—even politically incorrect to challenge them—regardless of their truth or falsity. When New York Times reporter Nicholas Kulish criticized film director Spike Lee for making “utterly unfounded charges that the failed lev­ees [in Louisiana during Hurricane Katrina] were blown up to flood poor black neighborhoods,” Kulish was attacked for deny­ing the “alternative perspectives” of black Louisiana residents. “In other words,” Aaronovitch observes, “the possible untruth of the allegations was far less important than the bigger truths [supposedly] revealed by them. So, in that sense, arguing about whether there really had been a conspiracy was not just beside the point, but amounted to an attempt to try and deny the larger alternative truth.148 This is an approach that dovetails with an intellectual trend, loosely labeled postmodernist or post-structuralist, which has be­come increasingly attractive to academics and intellectuals in re­cent years. One aspect of this inclination is a distrust of normative notions of truth. ‘You show me your reality,’ it suggests, ‘I’ll show you mine,’ and the man in Maine with a lobster in his hand will show you his. All accounts of events are essentially sto­ries, and no single account ought to be privileged above another.

It is a seductive and not entirely worthless way of looking at the world.149 Similarly, Oliver Stone once posed the question, “What is history? Some people say it’s a bunch of gossip made up by sol­diers who passed it around a campfire. They say such and such happened. They create, they make it bigger, they make it bet­ter. .. .The nature of human beings is that they exaggerate. So, what is history? Who the fuck knows?”150 In their reliance on inherently unreliable eyewitness testi­mony; in lay interpretations of forensic evidence (such as the “head snap” in the Zapruder film); in invocations of pseudo- or junk science (like the acoustical theory endorsed by the HSCA); in confusing rumors or even pure speculation for real­ity151 (Oswald was a secret agent, Ruby was a mobster, Robert F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. were killed by the same men who killed JFK; it’s all connected); in the rationalization of failure after failure152 (evidence implicates Oswald, so it must be forged; experts interpret evidence as disproof of a con­spiracy theory, so they must be lying); in the use of after-the- fact reasoning153 (Ruby killed Oswald, so Ruby must be connected to the assassination; Ruby made phone calls to Mob-related individuals, so the Mob must have killed JFK); in the failure to understand the role of coincidence and the signif­icance of representativeness154 (events such as the deaths of al­leged witnesses—no matter whether they really were witnesses or not—cannot possibly be a coincidence; it must be a conspir­acy); in their systematic embrace of methods such as these, the Warren Commission critics (and—mea culpa—I used to be one of them) have been and remain wrong. The conspiracy theories stem from logical fallacies, not legitimate arguments.

But that is not the end of the story.


      Recent research conducted by Viren Swami at the University of Westminster in England found that believers in conspiracy theories “are more likely to be cynical about the world in gen­eral and politics in particular,” writes science journalist Mag­gie Koerth-Baker. “Conspiracy theories also seem to be more compelling to those with low self-worth, especially with re­gard to their sense of agency in the world at large. Conspiracy theories appear to be a way of reacting to uncertainty and powerlessness.”155 “If you know the truth and others don’t, that’s one way you can reassert feelings of having agency,” Swami says. “It can be comforting to do your own research even if that research is flawed,” notes Koerth-Baker. “It feels good to be the wise old goat in a flock of sheep.”156 And, really, where is the harm? We accuse the govern­ment of criminal actions; so what? We know agents of the gov­ernment frequently engage in unethical and illegal acts; so why not point fingers? Is it really such a bad thing if some of the specific charges happen not to be true? Of course it is. Facts matter. The truth matters. Reckless accusations can never be justified, regardless of one’s inten­tions. And new research suggests that conspiracy theories in themselves can actually be quite harmful. “Psychologists aren’t sure whether powerlessness causes conspiracy theories or vice versa,” writes Maggie Koerth-Baker. “Either way, the current scientific thinking suggests these beliefs are nothing more than an extreme form of cynicism, a turning away from poli­tics and traditional media—which only perpetuates the prob­lem.”157 Research conducted by psychologist Karen Douglas and Daniel Jolley at the University of Kent in England showed that people exposed to conspiracy theories were more likely than others to withdraw from participation in the democratic process.158 It gets worse. Research conducted by Stephan Lewandowsky and others at the University of Western Aus­tralia School of Psychology found that belief in conspiracy the­ories significantly predicted a subject’s rejection of scientific findings such as climate science, the correlation between HIV and AIDS, and the link between smoking and lung cancer. The authors note, “Our results provide empirical support for previ­ous suggestions that conspiratorial thinking contributes to the rejection of science.”159 Research shows that those who believe AIDS was created by the government are less likely to practice protected sex.160 “And if you believe that governments or corporations are hid­ing evidence that vaccines harm children,” Koerth-Baker notes, “you’re less likely to have your children vaccinated. The result: pockets of measles and whooping-cough infections and a few deaths in places with low child-vaccination rates.”161 Conspiracy theories can actually kill you.

 Cause for Hope

      Of course, there is a way out of all this: base your beliefs on facts, not the other way around. Dare to be, like James Randi, “obsessed with reality.” By embracing the reality of the past instead of myths, we can make the most of the present and map out a better future.

For some, the era of Kennedy is remembered as “Camelot,” a Golden Age. To others, it was a time of persistent racial segregation, oppression, and violence; the Cold War and the arms race; and bloody, tragically misunderstood uprisings in Southeast Asia and Latin America. One may find many things to admire about JFK without turning a blind eye to his lack of effectiveness in advancing the civil rights legislation he championed, his secret war against Cuba, or his lapses in judgment with regard to personal behavior that threatened to compromise the integrity and security of his office.

But even if JFK was the white knight some would make him out to be, did his death really reverse the direction of poli­tics in the United States? British scholar Peter Knight asks, “If the Kennedy assassination is the result of a conspiracy by reac­tionary forces to pervert the course of history, as self-professed liberals such as Oliver Stone claim, then what about civil rights, feminism, gay and lesbian rights, and the ecology movement? Conspiratorial accounts of the political shootings of the 1960s as the moment when everything went wrong thus require a certain blindness to the progressive landmarks of that decade and after.”162 In the final analysis (as he himself was wont to say), those Who seek to honor John F. Kennedy’s memory would be best advised to honor the goals he set for the nation and the freedoms and institutions he pledged to uphold, and to participate in the democracy he pledged to serve.

Though much has changed in the world, we might recall some of the words with which President Kennedy challenged friend and foe alike at his 1961 inauguration: Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us....

Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce.

Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah—to “undo the heavy burdens.. .and to let the op­pressed go free.” And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved.

All this will not be finished in the first too days. Nor will it be finished in the first 1,000 days, nor in the life of this Adminis­tration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.163

 Skeptic Magazine, Vol 18, number 3, 2013


1.  Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. 1978.Robert Kennedy and His Times.Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 876-77.

2.  O’Hehir, Andrew. 1991. “JFK: Tragedy into Farce." San Francisco Weekly, De­cember 18, in Stone, Oliver, and Sklar, Zachary. 1992. JFK: The Book of the Film: The Documented Screenplay.New York: Applause, 270.

3.  Shermer, Michael. 1997. Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time. New York: MJF, xvii.

4.  Stone, Oliver, and Zachary, Sklar. 1992. JFK: The Book of the Film: The Documented Screenplay. New York: Applause, 231.

5.   Fonzi, Gaeton. 1998. "We Know the Truth. ”

6.  McAdams, John. 2011. JFK Assassination Logic: How to Think About Claims of Conspiracy. Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 6-11.

7.  Jack Franzen: Austin Miller: McAdams, John. 2011. JFK Assassination Logic: How to Think About Claims of Conspiracy. Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 3. Mary Ann Moorman: KRLD radio interview, November 22, 1963, 3:30 PM, transcribed by David Litton, posted online by Jack White, February 16, 2007. http://education- topic=17664&page=4  


9.  Hill, Jean. 1963. Voluntary Statement, Sheriff’s Department, County of Dallas. November 22. us/12/ 1294-001.gif

10.  Palamara, Vince. 1997. “The ‘Dead’ Secret Service Agent and the Agent(s) on the Knoll.” JFK/Deep Politics Quar­terly. October,

11.  Sneed, Larry A. 1998. No More Silence: An Oral History of the Assassi­nation of President Kennedy. Dallas: Three Forks Press, 23.

12.  Tabulation by Joel Grant, (The author has performed an inde­pendent tabulation consistent with Grant’s findings.)

14.  Loftus, Elizabeth F. 1979. Eyewitness Testimony. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 33-34.

15.  Bugliosi, Vincent. 2007. Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. New York: W.W. Norton, 848.

16.  Bugliosi. 2007, 847.

17.  Ibid.

18.  McAdams. 2011,13.

19.  Bugliosi. 2007, 415.

20.  McAdams. 2011, 28-30. See also Bugliosi. 2007, 403-16.

21.  Bugliosi. 2007, 408.

22.  Lifton, David S. 1998. Best Evidence: Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. New York: Carroll & Graf, 9-10.

23.  Ibid.

24.  Lifton, David. 2013. E-mail to author, July 26.

25.  Kelin, John. 2007. Praise from a Future Generation: The Assassination of John F. Kennedy and the First Genera­tion Critics of the Warren Report. San Antonio: Wings Press, 220-21. See also Lifton. 1998,10. See also http:// issues/33rd_lssue/no_5.html and

26.  Trask, Richard B. 1994. Pictures of the Pain: Photography and the Assassination of President Kennedy. Danvers, Massa­chusetts: Yeoman Press, 254. See also

28.  Lifton. 1998,10-11. Lifton still has suspicions about his Number 5 Man, however. Lifton, David. 2013. E-mail to author, July 26.

29.  McAdams. 2011,125-29. Trask.1994, 338-48.

30.  Marrs, Jim. 1989. Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy. New York: Carroll & Graf, 333.

31.  Bugliosi. 2007, 907.

32.  Cochran, Mike. 1983. “Warren Com­mission Critics Push Cover-Up Theory." The Press-Courier (Oxnard, California). November 7.

33.  McAdams. 2011, 125-29.

34.  Trask. 1994, 339-48.

35.  Trask. 1994, 345-47.

36.  Trask. 1994, 172.

37.  Trask. 1994,173. Also see: http://  Hinckle, Warren. 1974. If You Have a Lemon, Make Lemonade. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 225.


39.  McAdams. 2011, 98-112. See also: http: // deaths.htm

40.  Hinckle. 1974, 227.

41. Stone and Sklar. 1992,165.

42.  President Gerald Ford, who had served on the Warren Commission, created the United States President’s Commission on CIA Activities within the United States—better known as the Rockefeller Commission, after its chairman, Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller—to address allegations of illegal domestic activity by the CIA. In order to address the concerns of the Warren Commission critics, the Rockefeller Commission in­vestigated aspects of the Kennedy as­sassination, including the "head snap.” The members of the medical panel were: Lieutenant Colonel Robert R. McMeekin, MC, USA, Chief, Division of Aerospace Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C.; Richard Lindenberg, M.D., Director of Neuropathology & Legal Medicine, De­partment of Mental Health, State of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Werner U. Spitz, M.D., Chief Medical Examiner, Wayne County, Detroit, Michigan; Fred J. Hodges III, M.D., Professor of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; and Alfred G. Olivier, V.M.D., Director, Department of Biophysics, Biomedical Laboratories, Edgewood Arsenal, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland.

43.  McAdams. 2011, 130.

44.  Ibid.

45.  Trask. 1994,124-25. See also

46.  McAdams. 2011,130-31.

47.  The Secret KGB JFK Assassination Files. Dir. David McKenzie. Madacy, 2000. DVD.

48.  McAdams. 2011, 131.

49.  Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives. 1979. Washington. D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 65-84 (hereafter cited as HSCA Report). The report is online at /select-committee-report/

50.  National Academy of Sciences, Report of the Committee on Ballistic Acoustics. 1982. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. See also Bugliosi. 2007, Endnotes and Source Notes CD-ROM: Endnotes, 153-218.

51.  Bugliosi. 2007, 1264-65.

52.  Manchester, William. 1988. The Death of a President: November 20-25, 1963. New York: Harper & Row, 407.

53.  Ibid.

54.  Bugliosi. 2007, 320-21.

55.  Moss, Armand. 1987, Disinformation, Misinformation, and the "Conspiracy" to Kill JFK Exposed. Hamden, Connecti­cut: Archon.

56.  Bugliosi. 2007, 1267-68.

57.  Meagher, Sylvia. 1992. Accessories after the Fact: The Warren Commission, the Authorities, and the Report. Vin­tage, xxi. New York.

58.  Ibid.

59.  Bugliosi. 2007, 169-70.

60.  Sneed. 1998, 550-51.

61.  Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. 1964. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 728-29 (hereafter cited as Warren Report). The report is online at

62.  McAdams. 2011,162.

63.  Warren Report. 1964, 734-35.

64.  Salandria, Vincent J. 2000. “The JFK Assassination: A False Mystery Concealing State Crimes." Fair Play, July (typographical errors corrected),

65.  Schotz, E. Martin. 1996. History Will Not Absolve Us: Orwellian Control, Public Denial, and the Murder of President Kennedy. Brookline, Massachusetts: Kurtz, Ulmer & DeLucia, 4.

66.  Fonzi, Gaeton. 1998, op cit.

67.  Ibid.

68.  Bugliosi, 2007, 1189.

69.  Bugliosi, 2007, 1190.

70.  Russo. 1998, 35.

71.  Holland, 2004. The Kennedy Assassination Tapes: The White House Conver­sations of Lyndon B. Johnson regarding the Assassination, the Warren Commis­sion, and the Aftermath. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 120. See also Russo, Gus. 1998. Live by the Sword: The Se­cret War against Castro and the Death of JFK. Baltimore: Bancroft, 362.

72.  Russo. 1998, 32-34.

73.  Bugliosi. 2007, xxxii.

74.  Bugliosi. 2007, xlii.

75.  White, Theodore H. 1963. “For President Kennedy: An Epilogue." Life. December 6.158-59.

77.  Ibid.

78.  The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 2.1971. Boston: Beacon Press, 201. /intrel/pentagon2/pent6.htm

79.  Stone and Sklar. 1992,106.

80.  Stone and Sklar. 1992, 69-71,180-82.

81.  Newman. 1992, 427.

82.  Newman. 1992, 320.

83.  Schlesinger. 1978, 722.

84.  Stone and Sklar. 1992, 292.

85.  Rust, William J. 1987. Kennedy in Viet­nam: American Vietnam Policy 1960- 63. New York: Da Capo, x.

86.  Newman. 1992, 427.

89.  Shesol, Jeff. 1997. Mutual Contempt: Lyndon Johnson, Robert Kennedy, and the Feud That Defined a Decade. New York: W.W. Norton, 267-68, 277-80.

90.  Shesol. 1997, 267.

91.  Schlesinger. 1978, 738.

92.  Stone and Sklar. 1992, 242.

93.  Fonzi, Gaeton. 1993. The Last Investi­gation. New York: Thunder’s Mouth, 12.

94.  Bugliosi. 2007, 1078.

95.  Posner, Gerald. 1993. Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassina­tion of JFK. New York: Random House, 361.

96.  Bugliosi. 2007, 1116.

97.  Ibid.

98.  Posner. 1993, 359.

99.  Bugliosi. 2007, 1133.

100.  Posner. 1993, 359.

101.  Ibid.

102.  Ibid.

103.  McAdams. 2011, 87.

104.  Bugliosi. 2007,1131. Ruby did have an arrest record for several minor in­fractions, including carrying a con­cealed weapon, and a spotty driving record. (Bugliosi. 2007,1099-1100.)

105.  Bugliosi. 2007, 1131.

106.  Shermer. 1997, 53.

107.  Posner. 1993, 363. See also Bugliosi. 2007, 1103-08.

108.  Posner. 1993, 350-403. See also Bugliosi. 2007, 1071-1188.

109.  Eyewitness Jean Hill began claiming in the 1980s that she had seen a man fire a gun from the grassy knoll; but on the afternoon of the assassination, she stated very specifically in a filmed interview with NBC affiliate WBAP, “No, I didn’t see any person fire the weapon, I only heard it." Trask, 238- A woman named Beverly Oliver also began claiming, among many other doubtful things, that she had seen a grassy knoll gunman. It has never been established with any certainty that Oliver was an eyewitness to the assassination in the first place. See: edu/arnoldl.htm. Then there is the case of Virgil “Ed” Hoffman, a deaf mute, who first came forward in 1967 to indicate he had witnessed something suspicious behind the Texas School Book Depository, and years later told a variety of stories about a gunman and an accomplice behind the fence on the knoll. See:

110.  Warren Report. 1964, 63-79,143-47.

111.  Warren Report. 1964, 79-85.

112.  Warren Report. 1964, 118-24. Fingerprints: Savage, Gary. 1993. JFK First Day Evidence: Stored Away for 30 Years in an Old Briefcase, New Evidence Is Now Revealed by Former Dallas Police Crime Lab Detective R. W. (Rusty) Livingstone. Monroe, Louisiana: The Shoppe Press, 101-20.

113.  Warren Report. 1964,118-22.

114.  Warren Report. 1964,156-80.

115.  Warren Report. 1964, 85-96.

116.  William H. Carnes, M.D., et al. 1968 Panel Review of Photographs, X-Ray Films, Documents and Other Evidence Pertaining to the Fatal Wounding of President John F. Kennedy on November 22,1963, in Dallas, Texas. http://www. /master_med_set/md59/html/ Image00.htm Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities within the United States. 1975. Wash­ington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 257-64.

117.  Leahy, Michael. 1997. “Lee Harvey Oswald: A Brother’s Burden.” Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. November 16.

118.  Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Assassination of John F. Kennedy of the Select Committee on Assassinations, House of Representatives, Vol. VI. 1979. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 138-46 (hereafter cited as HSCA Hearings). HSCA Hearings, Vol. VII. 1979, 37-41.

119.  Specter, Arlen, with Robbins, Charles. 2000. Passion for Truth: From Finding JFK’s Single Bullet to Questioning Anita Hill to Impeaching Clinton. New York: William Morrow, 80.

120.  Hearings before the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, Volume II. 1964. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 375.

121.  Bugliosi. 2007, 460-63.

122.  McAdams. 2011, 243-44.

123.  Warren Report. 1964, 96-109.

124.  Warren Report, 19.

125.  Fuoco, Michael A. November 16, “40 years on, Arlen Specter and Cyril Wecht still don’t agree how JFK died.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.

126.  Stone and Sklar. 1992, 152.

128.  The nine members were: John I. Coe, M.D., chief medical examiner of Hen­nepin County, Minnesota; Joseph H. Davis, M.D., chief medical examiner of Dade County, Miami, Florida; George S. Loquvam, M.D., director of the Institute of Forensic Sciences, Oakland, California; Charles S. Petty, M.D., chief medical examiner, Dallas County, Dallas, Texas; Earl Rose, M.D., LL.B., professor of pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Werner V. Spitz, M.D., medical examiner of Detroit, Michigan; Cyril H. Wecht, M.D., J.D., coroner of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania; James T. Weston, M.D., chief medical investigator, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mex­ico; panel chairman Michael M. Baden, M.D., chief medical examiner, New York City.

129.  HSCA Report. 1979, 44.

130.  HSCA Hearings, Vol. I. 1979, 354

133.  The Secret KGB JFK Assassination Files. Dir. David McKenzie. Madacy, 2000. DVD.

134.  “JFK: Beyond the Magic Bullet.” Unsolved History. Discovery Channel, Television.

135.  Lattimer, John K., M.D., Sc.D., F.A.C.S. 1980. Kennedy and Lincoln: Medical and Ballistic Comparisons of Their Assassinations. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 260-91. Lattimer, John K., M.D., et al. 1994. "Experimental Duplication of the Important Physical Evidence of the Lapel Bulge of the Jacket Worn by Governor Connally When Bullet 399 Went Through Him.” Journal of the American College of Sur­geons, May.

136.  American Bar Association Mock Trial, U.S. vs. Lee Harvey Oswald. Court TV, 1992. Television.

137.  Myers, Dale K. Secrets of a Homicide: JFK Assassination. 2008. Web.

138.   Bugliosi. 2007, 489-90. See also McAdams. 2011, 217-46.

139.  Bugliosi. 2007, 531-37.

140.  Bugliosi. 2007, 948.

141.  Bugliosi. 2007, 528.

142.  Posner. 1993, 80-81, 83, 85, 93-97, 99, 102  Bugliosi. 2007, 688-97.

142.  Bugliosi. 2007, 718-59.

144.  Bugliosi. 2007, 938-39.

145.  Bugliosi. 2007, 937.

146.  Bugliosi. 2007, 940-41. See also: Newman, Albert H. 1970. The Assassination of John F. Kennedy: The Reasons Why. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1970, 22-6.

148.  Aaronovitch. 2010, 344-45.

149.  Aaronovitch. 2010, 345.

150.  Stone and Sklar. 1992, 208.

151.  Shermer. 1997, 51.

152.  Shermer. 1997, 53.

153.  Shermer. 1997, 53.

154.  Shermer. 1997, 54.

155.  Koerth-Baker, Maggie. 2013. “Why Ra­tional People Buy into Conspiracy Theo­ries.” The New York Times Magazine. May 21. people-buy-into-conspiracy-theories.html?pagewanted=all&_r=l&

156.  Ibid.

157.  Ibid.

158.  Ibid.

159.  Lewandowsky, Stephan, et al. 2012. “NASA Faked the Moon Landing— Therefore, (Climate) Science Is a Hoax: An Anatomy of the Motivated Rejection of Science.” Psychological Science. May. /LskyetalPsychScienceinPressClimate-Conspiracy.pdf

160.  Koerth-Baker. 2013. See also Lewandowsky, et al. 2012.

161.  Koerth-Baker. 2013.

162.  Knight, Peter. 2000. Conspiracy Culture: From Kennedy to the X Files. New York: Routledge, 80.

163. 56.html