Romanticism is a backlash to Enlightenment (read Shelly’s “Frankenstein”)
Industrialism/Capitalism verses Liberalism/Individualism (read Dicken’s “Hard Times”)
and the Rise of Unitarianism (1830)
1848 - The French Revolution - Emperor Louis XVI believes in divine right; population growth; pressures of stagnant economy (the estate system) feudal economy; the 3rd estate carries tax burden; American Revolution success due to French support; French frustration of Estates General had not met since 1610; Enlighten political discussion that there is a "Prime Creator" undermines the notion of divine right; begins looking inward (human political relationships & rights). Thomas Hobbes writes of a commonwealth to organize society (Levant) to create a better society. "The life of man is about conference and indifference and short & indifference."
John Locke writes that people have natural rights: life, liberty, and property. "To life under absolutism is slavery." Tabula risa: Humans are a blank slate at birth environment models intellectual; argument for human equality and human rights.
Rousseau writes about the Social Contract; individuals have power by membership in a larger group; power is held by the group, the general will can effect political change through democratic consensus by qualified people free of self-interest, informed acting for the good of the society.
French Finance Minister, Jacque advises against raising taxes. Louis XVI calls the Estates General in Spring 1789. the 3rd Estate is locked out and convenes in a Handball Court to create the Deceleration Rights of Man (aka constitution). Food riots in Paris; mood becomes darker and darker. July 14, 1789 decides to liberate political prisoners in the Bastille. August 1789, National Assembly is born.
Jan 1793 - Louis XVI is executed; Radicals (Jacobeans) gain power; 'san coulte' (trouserless) minority pushes National Assembly further: Committee for Public Security over 16 months is the "Terror" lead by Robespierre, to attain a new political state. Napoleon enters into a power vacuum and leads a coup; and builds an army to disrupt England power.